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Figure 24.13--Rising temperatures after 7,500 yr BP (hypsithermal) melted the remnant Laurentide Ice Sheet by 6,500 yr BP. Trees reached the Hudson Bay in Canada, where treeless tundra exists today. After 5,000 yr BP, melting glaciers elevated oceans to present sea level. A cooling trend following the hypsithermal eventually led to the Little Ice Age (LIA) between 1400 and 1880 (modified Pielou 1991).

Line graph showing oscillating temperatures with 8 cycles from cold to warm but generally rising during the Pleistocene from 20 thousand years before present to a high at 7,500 years and returning through the Holocene to half that peak by now, with the trough immediately before now labeled Little Ice Age


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content: Wayne D. Carroll
webmaster: John M. Pye

created: 4-OCT-2002
modified: 08-Dec-2013