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Woodland Culture (2,800 to 1,300 Years BP)

Widespread pottery making, horticulture, and semipermanent settlements mark the Woodland culture. Hunting and gathering methods remained traditional with one major change—the use of the bow and arrow. This tool improved deer harvesting. Arrowheads representative of this period are found throughout the Southeast. Yadkin points were widespread in the region early. Other styles, such as Madison, Santa Fe, Scallorn, and Agee, followed the Yadkin points.


A small-eared form of maize was cultivated from 2,200 to about 1,600 years BP but disappeared because of global cooling. Populations continued to grow, increasing tribal identity, and indicating stronger socio-political systems than in the past (Hudson 1976). Trade between peaceful tribes flourished throughout the Southeast and developed with the larger civilizations in Mesoamerica (fig. 24.14). As Mesoamerican influence gradually displaced Woodland cultures over large areas of the Southeast, the Mississippian culture emerged. However, Woodland cultures continued in Virginia and most of North Carolina. Much of Kentucky became uninhabited around the first century (2,000 years BP) due to migration of tribes to the east and west as a result of aggressive pressure from Algonquian Tribes from the north (Merrell 1982).


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content: Wayne D. Carroll
webmaster: John M. Pye

created: 4-OCT-2002
modified: 08-Dec-2013