This edition of the "silvics manual" differs from the original in length, format, and the number of species included. A wider geographical area is covered and species with other than commercial timber value have been added. To keep the present work to a reasonable length, descriptions and illustrations of genera and many of the pre-1965 citations contained in the earlier edition were omitted.
The task of preparing so extensive a collection of individual papers was formidable, and many decisions were dictated by practical considerations. Although the individual papers follow the same general pattern, no attempt was made to achieve uniformity of length, scope, or approach. Many differences in treatment are related to the importance of the species and the amount of information available in the literature. The following notes on specific points should be helpful.
The importance of a variety within a species differs. Some varieties, particularly those important to forestry, are addressed separately. Others are discussed within the species treatment, or are described under the heading "Genetics." The term subspecies used in some instances is synonymous with variety.
Within the text, scientific names of trees and other plants, insects, and diseases are given without specification of author or synonyms; these are provided in lists at the end of each volume. Scientific names are generally those that were in effect when the original writing was done. Common names of birds and mammals are used in the text; scientific names are provided in a list. Every effort has been made to achieve accuracy and consistency in use of scientific names, but as common names differ widely, uniformity was not attempted. References used for all names are included in the list that follows these notes. Names of trees follow "Checklist of United States Trees"; other plant names were checked against the "National List of Scientific Plant Names"; and mammal names were taken from the "Checklist of Mammals of the United States and the U.S. Territories."
Metric units are used in the text with English equivalents in parentheses. Neither unit is uniformly accurate throughout because referenced units may have been either metric or English and because of rounding of numbers. Conversions of board feet to cubic meters, in particular, should be viewed as estimates rather than true measurements because of assumptions made in the conversion process.
The following lists contain works that provide background information on a variety of topics relating to silvics.
Arno, Stephen F. 1977. Northwest trees. The Mountaineers, Seattle, WA. 222 p.
Bailey, Liberty Hyde, and Ethel Zoe Bailey. 1976. Hortus third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and enlarged by the Staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. Macmillan, Riverside, NJ. 1304 p.
Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Hafner, New York. 596 p.
Collingwood, G. H., and Warren D. Brush. 1978. Knowing your trees. Revised and edited by Devereux Butcher. American Forestry Association, Washington, DC. 392 p.
Crum, Howard E., and Lewis E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of eastern North America. 2 vols. Columbia University Press, New York. 1328 p.
Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America. Field guide and natural history. Outdoor Life/Nature Books. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 948 p.
Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 8th ed. American Book, New York. 1632 p.
Ford-Robertson, F. C., ed. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. English language version. The Multilingual Forestry Terminology Series 1. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 349 p.
Gleason, Henry A. 1963. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Hafner Press, New York. vol.1, 482 p.; vol.2, 655 p.; vol.3, 595 p.
Griffin, James R., and William B. Critchfield. 1976. The distribution of forest trees in California. USDA Forest Service Research Paper PSW-82/1972 (reprinted with supplement, 1976). USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 118 p.
Harlow, William M., Elwood S. Harrar, and Fred M. White. 1979. Textbook of dendrology 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 510 p.
Hitchcock, C. Leo, and Arthur Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 730 p.
Hosie, R. C. 1979. Native trees of Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside in cooperation with Canada Forestry Service and the Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services, Ottawa. 380 p.
Krajina, V. J., Klinka, and J. Worrall. 1982. Distribution and ecological characteristics of trees and [some] shrubs of British Columbia. University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry, Vancouver. 131 p.
Lamb, Samuel H. 1981. Native trees and shrubs of the Hawaiian Islands. Sunstone Press, Santa Fe, NM. 159 p.
Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook 541. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 375 p.
Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971-79. Atlas of United States trees. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. Miscellaneous Publication 1146, 9 p., 313 maps; 3. Minor western hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1314, 13 p., 290 maps; 4. Minor eastern hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1342, 17 p., 230 maps; 5. Florida. Misc. Publ. 1361, 19 p., 82 maps; 6. Supplement. Misc. Publ. 1410, 31 p., 39 maps. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. (For vol.2, see Viereck and Little 1975.)
Little, Elbert L., Jr., and Frank H. Wadsworth. 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook 249. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 548 p.
Little, Elbert L., Jr., Roy 0. Woodbury, and Frank H. Wadsworth. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol.2. Agriculture Handbook 449. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 1024 p.
Munz, Philip A., and David D. Keck. 1959. A California flora. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1681 p.
Munz, Philip A. 1968. Supplement to a California flora. University of California Press, Berkeley. 224 p.
Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1086 p.
Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and Ritchie C. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1183 p.
Rock, Joseph F. 1974. The indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Islands. 2d ed. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Charles E. Tuttle, Rutland, VT. 548 p.
Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Canadian National Museum of Natural Science, Publication Botany 7, parts 1, 2, 3. Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON.
Stephens, H. A~ 1973. Woody plants of the north central plains. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. 530 p.
Stokes, B. W. 1981. The natural history of wild shrubs and vines: eastern and central North America. Harper & Row, New York. 246 p.
Treshow, Michael, Stanley L. Welsh, and Glen Moore. 1970. Guide to the woody plants of the Mountain States. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. 178 p.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. 1. List of plant names; 2. Synonymy SCS-13 General Notes and Selected References TP-159. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 416 p. and 438 p.
Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agriculture Handbook 410. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 26p.
Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1975. Atlas of United States trees. 2. Alaska trees and common shrubs. Miscellaneous Publication 1293. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 19 p., 105 maps.
Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.
Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 642 p.
Entomological Society of America. 1982. Common names of insects
and related organisms, revised. Committee on Common Names of Insects
Floyd G. Werner, Chairman. Entomological Society of America, College Park, MD. 132 p.
Furniss, R. L., and V M. Carolin. 1980. Western forest insects. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 654 p.
Hedlin, Alan F., Harry 0. Yates III, David Cibrian Tovar, and others. 1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. USDA Forest Service and Canadian Forestry Service, Washington, DC, and Ottawa, ON. 122 p.
Holsten, Edward H., Richard A. Werner, and Thomas H. Laurent. 1980. Insects and diseases of Alaskan forests. Alaska Region Report 75. USDA Forest Service, Juneau, AK. 187 p.
Johnson, Warren T., and Howard H. Lyon. 1976. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs; an illustrated practical guide. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 464 p.
Martineau, Rene' E. 1984. Insects harmful to forest trees. Brookfield PubI. Co., Brookfield, VT (in U.S.); Multiscience Publishing, Montreal, PQ (in Canada). 261 p.
Pirone, Pascal P.1978. Diseases and pests of ornamental plants. 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 566 p.
Stein, John D., and Patrick C. Kennedy. 1972. Key to shelterbelt insects in the Northern Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM- 85. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 153 p.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1979. A guide to common insects and diseases of forest trees in the northeastern United States. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry NA-FR-4. USDA Forest Service, Broomall, PA. 127 p.
Wilson, Louis F. 1977. A guide to insect injury of conifers in the Lake States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 501. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 218 p.
Baxter, Dow V. 1952. Pathology in forest practice. 2d ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 601 p.
Baxter, Dow V. 1967. Diseases in forest plantations: thief of time. Bulletin 51. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, MI. 251 p.
Bega, Robert V., tech. coord. 1979. Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 521. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 206 p.
Blanchard, Robert 0., and Terry A. Tattar. 1981. Field and laboratory guide to tree pathology. Academic Press, New York. 285 p.
Boyce, John Shaw. 1961. Forest pathology. 3d ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 572 p.
Hawksworth, F. G., and D. Wiens. 1972. Biology and classification of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 401. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 234 p.
Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 658 p.
Manion, Paul. 1981. Tree disease concepts. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 399 p.
Peterson, Glenn W., and Richard S. Smith, Jr., tech. coords. 1975. Forest nursery diseases in the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 470. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 125 p.
Tattar, Terry A. 1978. Diseases of shade trees. Academic Press, New York. 361 p.
Kramer, Paul J., and Theodore T. Kozlowski. 1960. Physiology of trees. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 640 p
Thimann, K. V.1972. The nature of plant hormones. In Plant physiology. vol. VI. B. F. C. Steward, ed. p. 3-145. Academic Press, New York.
Avery, Thomas Eugene, and Harold E. Burkhart. 1983. Forest measurements. 3d ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 331 p.
Barrett, John W., ed. 1980. Regional silviculture of the United States. 2d ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 625 p.
Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. 1983. Silviculture systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agriculture Handbook 445, rev. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 191 p.
Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. 1989. The scientific basis for silvicultural and management decisions in the National Forests. General Technical Report WO-55. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 180 p.
Daubenmire, Rexford. 1968. Plant communities: A textbook of plant synecology. Harper and Row, New York. 300 p.
Hudson, Hartmann T., and Dale E. Kester. 1983. Plant propagation: principles and practices. 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 727 p.
Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook 450. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 883 p.
Smith, Penninah, and Leanne Every, comps. 1980. Rooting habits of selected commercial tree species of the eastern United States-a bibliography. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture 10. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 59 p.
Society of American Foresters and the Wildlife Society. 1981. Choices in silviculture for American forests. Society of American Foresters and the Wildlife Society, Washington, DC. 80 p.
Spurr, Stephen H., and Burton V Barnes. 1973. Forest ecology 2d ed. Ronald Press, New York. 571 p.
Wright, Jonathan W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York. 463 p.
Armson, K. A. 1977. Forest soils: properties and processes. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 390 p.
Buol, S. W., ed. 1973. Soils of the Southern States and Puerto Rico. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 174. Agricultural Experiment Stations of the Southern States and Puerto Rico in cooperation with U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC. 105 p.
Ewel, J. J., and J. L. Whitmore. 1973. The ecological life zones of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper ITF-18. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, PR. 72 p.
Hare, R Kenneth, and Morley K. Thomas. 1979. Climate Canada. 2d ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 230 p.
Highsmith, Richard M., Jr., ed. 1957. Atlas of Pacific Northwest. 2d ed. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 140 p.
Lull, Howard W., comp. 1968. A forest atlas of the Northeast. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 46 p.
Merz, Robert W., comp. 1978. Forest atlas of the Midwest. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. St. Paul, MN. 48 p.
National Climatic Center. 1979. Comparative climatic data for the United States through 1978. National Climatic Center, Federal Building, Asheville, NC. 94 p.
Oke, T. R. 1978. Boundary layer climates. Halstead, New York. 371 p.
Pritchett, William L. 1979. Properties and management of forest soils. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 500 p.
Ruffner, James A~ 1978. Climates of the States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration narrative summaries, tables, and maps for each site, with current table of normals, 1941-1970, means and extremes of 1975, and overview of State climatologist programs. vol.1. Gale Research, Detroit, MI. 1185 p.
Schaefer, Vincent J., and John A. Day. 1981. A field guide to the atmosphere. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. 359 p.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1969. A forest atlas of the South. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA, and Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville. NC. 28 p.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1975. Soil taxonomy A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting Soil surveys. Soil Survey Staff, eds. Agriculture Handbook 436. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC. 754 p.
Youngberg, Chester T., ed. 1978. Forest soil and land use. Proceedings of the Fifth North American Forest Soils Conference. Colorado State University Press, Fort Collins. 623 p.
American Fisheries Society. 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. 4th ed. Special Publication 12. Bethesda, MD. 174 p.
American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Checklist of North American birds. 6th ed. Lawrence, KS.
Association of Systematics Collections. 1982. Checklist of mammals of the United States and the U.S. territories. (Prepared for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services.) Lawrence, KS. 31 p.
Collins, J. T., J. E. Huheey, J. L. Knight, and H. M. Smith. 1978. Standard common and scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Lawrence, KS. 36 p.
Hall, E. Raymond. 1981. Mammals of North America. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1175 p.