Effects of Light Regimes on the Growth of Cherrybark Oak Seedlings
Light regimes vary significantly within small forest openings, ranging from full sunlight to total shade, and they may affect the establishment and early growth of oak seedlings. We designed modified shadehouses to simulate the complex light conditions within forest openings and tested the effects of daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), time of direct light exposure, and the ratio of direct light to day length (direct-sunlight ratio) on height, diameter, and periodic growth of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings through 2 yr. Five treatments representing the time of exposure to direct sunlight were created: NO, NOON, MORNING, AFTERNOON, and FULL. Treatments significantly affected both the height and root-collar diameter of seedlings, especially during the second growing season. The direct-sunlight ratio was linearly related to periodic height growth for the NOON treatment but not related to height growth for the other treatments. However, periodic height growth in the AFTERNOON and FULL treatments was highly correlated to mean daily PAR. Maximum periodic height growth occurred at moderate daily PAR levels. This research showed that light conditions for maximum growth of cherrybark oak seedlings change through time, with adequate shading being most favorable during the early stages of establishment.