Effects of Nantucket pine tip moth insecticide spray schedules on loblolly pine seedlings
Frequent and prolonged insecticide applications to control the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera:Torticidae) (NPTM), although effective, may be impractical and uneconomica1, for commercial timber production. Timed insecticide sprays of permethrin (Polmce 3.2® EC) were applied to all possible combinations of spray schedules for three annual NPTM generations during the first, second, and first and second years following stand establishment. An optimal insecticide spray schedule that minimized the rzurnber of costly irzsecticide app1icatiorz.s rind maximized volurne index in lohlolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was determined by applying a single spray chiring the first generation of the first and second years following planting. This schedule eliminates four sprays over a 2 yr period when compared to standard insecticide application schedu1es and has important implications toward establishing an integrated pest management program for this common regeneration pest.