Mantle biopsy: a technique for nondestructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels
Mantle biopsy is a means of obtaining tissue samples for genetic, physiological, and contaminant studies of bivalves; but the effects of this biopsy on survival have not been determined. We describe a simple technique for obtaining such samples from unionacean bivalves and how we compared survival among biopsied and control organisms in field experiments. Survival was not significantly different between treatment and control groups. Power estimates for these results were between 0.42 and 0.73. Results were similar among species and among habitats. Mantle biopsy is a technique that allows genetic, biochemical, and contaminant studies of mussel populations when destruction of individuals should be avoided.