Impacts of invasive species in terrestrial and aquatic systems in the United StatesThis article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
The introduction, establishment, and spread of invasive species in terrestrial and aquatic environments is widely recognized as one of the most serious threats to the health, sustainability, and productivity of native ecosystems (Holmes et al. 2009; Mack et al. 2000; Pyšek et al. 2012; USDA Forest Service 2013). In the United States, invasive species are the second leading cause of native species endangerment and extinction, and their costs to society have been estimated at $120 billion annually (Crowl et al. 2008; Pimentel et al. 2000, 2005). These costs include lost production and revenue from agricultural and forest products, compromised use of waterways and terrestrial habitats, harm to human and animal health, reduced property values and recreational opportunities, and diverse costs associated with managing (e.g., monitoring, preventing, controlling, and regulating) invasive species (Aukema et al. 2011; Pimentel et al. 2005). The national significance of these economic, ecological, and social impacts in the United States has prompted various actions by both legislative and executive branches of the Federal Government (e.g., the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990; the Noxious Weed Control and Eradication Act of 2002; Executive Order 13112 of 1999, amended in 2016).