Trap Type, Chirality of a-Pinene, and Geographic Region Affect Sampling Efficiency of Root and Lower Stem Insects in Pine
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Root and lower stem insects cause significant damage to conifers, vector phytopathogenic fungi, and can predispose trees to bark beetle attacks. The development of effective sampling techniques is an important component in managing these cryptic insects. We tested the effects of trap type and stereochemistry of a-pinene, in combination with ethanol, on catches of the root colonizing weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Hylobius spp. [mostly Hylobius pales (Herbst)], and Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), the root colonizing bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Hylastes porculus Erickson, and the lower stem colonizing bark beetle Dendroctonus valens). We tested for inter-regional differences by conducting similar field assays in the northern (Wisconsin) and southern (Louisiana) United States. The more effective trap type varied with region. Root weevils were caught primarily in pitfall traps in Wisconsin, whereas they were caught mostly in lower stem flight traps in Louisiana. In Wisconsin, root colonizing bark beetles were also caught primarily in pitfall traps, but lower stem colonizing bark beetles were caught primarily in lower stem flight traps. The root feeding weevils preferred (-) over (+)-a-pinene in both regions. Some exceptions relating to trap type or gender occurred in southern populations. The two root and lower stem colonizing bark beetles in Wisconsin showed no preference between (+) and (-)-a-pinene in combination with ethanol. No bark beetles were caught in the south. Our results suggest that modifying trap type and enantiomeric ratios of monoterpenes for different insect groups and in different regions can improve sampling efficiency for these important pests.
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