Bird density and diversity as related to vegetation in forest recreational areas
Forty-nine species of birds were found nesting in 30 forest recreational areas in the Southern Appalachians. The percentage of cover provided by foliage less than 12 feet high accounted for 56 percent of the variation in densities of nesting birds. The mixture of coniferous and deciduous foliage more than 12 feet high accounted for 66 percent of the variation in the diversity of birds. Clumping of understory shrubs is important to birds in open, parklike recreational areas. Recommendations for managing forest recreational areas for reasonably dense and diverse bird populations are compatible with major management goals.