Recycling, certification, and international trade of paper and paperboard: Demand in Germany and the United States

  • Authors: Kuuluvainen, Jari; Korhonen, Jaana; Toppinen, Anne; Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Cubbage, Frederick
  • Publication Year: 2017
  • Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
  • Source: Forest Science
  • DOI: 10.5849/FS-2016-073R2


On the basis of data from 2000 to 2010, we investigated the separate effects of the uptake of forest certification and the usage of recycled paper on imports of paper and paperboard into Germany and the United States. Using panel data methods and based on a conventional Armington trade model, we find that the effects of two main forest certification schemes—the Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)— differ between markets. In Germany, the PEFC was negatively related to imports. In the United States, imports were preferred from PEFC-dominated countries. The recycled paper utilization rate interacted negatively with imports, irrespective of import country. We also found that price and income elasticities of demand for both countries were within ranges found by other authors: the long-term relative price elasticity of total import demand ranged from –0.70 to –0.78 for Germany and from –0.78 to –0.89 for the United States. The elasticity of demand for economic activity was also smaller (between 0.74 and 0.87) for Germany than for the United States (between 0.87 and 0.97).


  • Citation: Korhonen, Jaana; Toppinen, Anne; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Cubbage, Frederick 2017. Recycling, certification, and international trade of paper and paperboard: Demand in Germany and the United States. Forest Science. 63(5): 449-458.
  • Keywords: paper and paperboard, forest certification, paper recycling, panal data, import demand, requlation
  • Posted Date: October 27, 2017
  • Modified Date: December 6, 2017
  • Print Publications Are No Longer Available

    In an ongoing effort to be fiscally responsible, the Southern Research Station (SRS) will no longer produce and distribute hard copies of our publications. Many SRS publications are available at cost via the Government Printing Office (GPO). Electronic versions of publications may be downloaded, printed, and distributed.

    Publication Notes

    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
    • Our online publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact the SRS webmaster if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • To view this article, download the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.