The Evolving Role of Forest Inventory and Analysis Data in Invasive Insect Research
Enabled by humans’ ever-expanding trade and travel networks, invasive alien species are crossing borders worldwide at alarming rates (Haack 2006; Haack and Rabaglia 2013; Hulme 2009; Kaluza et al. 2010; Koch et al. 2011; Liebhold et al. 2006; Lodge et al. 2006; Perrings et al. 2005; Pyšek and Richardson 2010; Tatem 2009; Westphal et al. 2008). An astonishing 50,000+ non-native species have been introduced into the U.S. either accidentally or purposefully, and approximately 4,500 of those introductions have been arthropods (Pimentel et al. 2005). Furthermore, new establishments of non-native species (arthropods and others) continue to accumulate rapidly, at an average of six per year in California and 15 per year in both Hawaii and Florida (Center for Invasive Species Research 2014). In the mid-1990s, it was estimated that some 360 introduced insect species had become established in U.S. forests (Liebhold et al. 1995; reviewed by Moser et al. 2009).