The attractiveness of manuka oil and ethanol, alone and in combination, to xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and other curculionidae
The increasing volume of international commerce in the last century has resulted in an exchange of organisms at an alarming rate. Among those exhibiting a significant threat to forests are the bark and ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi. Between 1985 and 2005, 18 scolytinae species introductions to the U.S. were recorded, and others have been documented since (Haack 2006; Rabaglia et al. 2010). The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and the associated laurel wilt fungus (Raffaela lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich & Aghayeva) (Harrington et al. 2008), is one such insect-fungus species complex. First detected in Port Wentworth, Georgia in 2002, the beetle and pathogen have since spread to North and South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida (Bates et al. 2013).