Kairomonal responses of natural enemies and associates of the Southern Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Ipsdienol, Ipsenol and Cis-Verbenol
Bark beetle infested pines are an ephemeral habitat utilized by a diverse assemblage of insects. Although many bark beetle insect associates have little or no measurable impact on bark beetle brood production, some reduce brood production by either competing with brood for the limited phloem tissue or by feeding on brood. Several studies have observed synchrony between the colonization of hosts by bark beetles and the arrival of insect associates. Some insect associates mediate synchrony with bark beetle mass attacks with kairomonal responses to bark beetle aggregation pheromones. The objectives of this study were to document the community of Coleoptera associated with the southern Ips (Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis) and to test the hypotheses that synchrony of insect associates with the southern Ips is mediated by kairomonal responses to aggregation phereomones. A large community of Coleoptera (109 species) was recorded from traps baited with southern Ips pheromones. A significant treatment effect was observed for the guilds of meristem feeders, natural enemies and woodborers. The southern Ips pheromone ipsenol was broadly attractive to meristem feeders, natural enemies and woodborers and in general blends were more attractive than individual compounds. These results demonstrate that a diverse community of Coleoptera is associated with the southern Ips and that several members of this community facilitate synchrony with kairomonal responses to southern Ips aggregation pheromones.