A National Study of Constraints to Participation in Outdoor Recreational Activities
A number of studies have shown that certain groups in American society (e.g., Blacks, women, urban dwellers) can encounter barriers or perceived constraints to participation in outdoor recreation. Early research on constraints focused on racial or gender differences. More recent research has examined the effects of income, education, age, and place of residence (Arnold and Shinew 1998). However, despite the growth of research on constraints, few studies have examined how social factors (e.g., access, services, health) may constrain participation in outdoor recreation.