Southern Pine Beetle Ecology: Populations within Stands

This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.

  • Authors: Ayres, Matthew P.; Martinson, Sharon J.; Friedenberg, Nicholas A.
  • Publication Year: 2011
  • Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
  • Source: In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 75-89.

Abstract

Populations of southern pine beetle (SPB) are typically substructured into local aggregations, each with tens of thousands of individual beetles. These aggregations, known as “spots” because of their appearance during aerial surveys, are the basic unit for the monitoring and management of SPB populations in forested regions. They typically have a maximum lifespan of 1 year, being born in the spring when dispersing SPB aggregate at points in the forest. Spots that survive to the following spring produce the dispersing beetles that form a new population of spots. SPB epidemics rise and fall with interannual variation in the number of spots within a region. Many spots, especially those that begin small, die an early death by midsummer. Others may grow throughout the summer and into the winter via a self-propagating progression of tree attacks that is critically structured by semiochemicals. Forces that influence the growth of populations within spots strongly influence the dynamic fluctuations in SPB impacts on regional forests. These forces include pine species composition, habitat edges, age and basal area of pine stands, tree defenses, the predator Thanasimus dubius, interactions with phoretic mites and fungi, climate, and movement of beetles into and out of spots.

  • Citation: Ayres, Matthew P.; Martinson, Sharon J.; Friedenberg, Nicholas A. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle Ecology: Populations within Stands. In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 75-89.
  • Keywords: aggregation behavior, Allee effect, basal area, forest management, Ophiostoma, pheromone, population structure, SPBIS, suppression, Tarsonemus, temperature, Thanasimus, tree defense
  • Posted Date: September 27, 2011
  • Modified Date: September 27, 2011
  • Print Publications Are No Longer Available

    In an ongoing effort to be fiscally responsible, the Southern Research Station (SRS) will no longer produce and distribute hard copies of our publications. Many SRS publications are available at cost via the Government Printing Office (GPO). Electronic versions of publications may be downloaded, printed, and distributed.

    Publication Notes

    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
    • Our online publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact the SRS webmaster if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • To view this article, download the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.