Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between themThis article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our traps filled with both species, and they are difficult to tell apart because wing characters are unreliable.