Demonstrating the benefits of phytosanitary regulations: the case of ISPM 15This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
Invasions of non-indigenous insects and pathogens threaten trees and forest ecosystems worldwide. For example, the arrival and spread of the pathogens causing chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease, along with the bark beetles vectoring the latter, had dramatic effects on North American forests. Despite our improved awareness of the risks associated with biological invasions, globalization and an increase in international trade have facilitated the continued arrival and establishment of non-indigenous forest pests and diseases.