An Examination of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation


This study examines whether different social and marginalized groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, immigrants, low income, less educated) perceive more constraints or barriers to outdoor recreation participation than White middle-class males. Logistic regressions were applied to data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment to model the probability that individuals perceived certain constraints to participating in outdoor recreation activities. Eighteen constraints related to health, safety, socio-economic standing, and other personal factors were examined. Results indicated minorities, women, low income, less educated and elderly populations, in particular, were more likely to perceive they were constrained from participating in their favorite activities. In comparing these results to an earlier study, minorities, women, and urban dwellers perceived more constraints to recreation participation today than in previous years.

  • Citation: Green, G.T.; Bowker, J.M.; Wang, X.; Cordell, H.K.; Johnson, Cassandra Y. 2009. An Examination of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation. Journal of Public Affairs and Issues 12:28-53.
  • Keywords: Constraints, Logistic Regression, Marginalized Groups, Recreation Participation, Social Groups
  • Posted Date: September 16, 2010
  • Modified Date: March 23, 2017
  • Print Publications Are No Longer Available

    In an ongoing effort to be fiscally responsible, the Southern Research Station (SRS) will no longer produce and distribute hard copies of our publications. Many SRS publications are available at cost via the Government Printing Office (GPO). Electronic versions of publications may be downloaded, printed, and distributed.

    Publication Notes

    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
    • Our online publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact the SRS webmaster if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • To view this article, download the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.