Evaluation of a commercially available ELISA kit for quantifying imidacloprid residues in Erthrina sandwicensis leaves for management of the Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim.
The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim 2004, was first detected in Hawaii in 2005 and has been infesting and killing Erythrina trees throughout the island chain since. It is believed EGW originated from Africa (Messing et al. 2009). Its host range appears to be limited to Erythrina; its geographic range already includes much of Asia and the Pacific. In North America, EGW has recently become established in south Florida and it is expected that introductions will occur to southern California (Smith et al. 2007). Observations indicate that a highly favored host is E. variegate L., but numerous species, including the Hawaiian endemic, E. sandwicensis O. Deg are severely injured and killed. Erythrina are warm-loving plants with about 115 species in the genus. It is expected that EGW will expand its geographic range to meet that of its host Erythrina with some restrictions due to climate (Li et al. 2006).