Adaptive collab orative restoration: a key concept in invasive plant management
Nonnative invasive species (NNIS) present a severe human dilemma due to their collective threat of replacing and damaging human sustaining ecosystems (U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment 1993; Mack et al. 2000; Pimentel 2002). Rapid developments in global trade have caught governments and their regulatory agencies unaware and ill prepared to prevent entries of foreign invasive species across previously insurmountable barriers of oceans, mountains, and desserts (Pierre 1996; Simberloff 1996). New introductions of NNIS have accelerated among and across all continents and have been characterized as bioinvasions of bioterrorists that threaten many countries' biosecurity (Vitousek et al. 1996; Pimentel 2002; Meyerson and Reaser 2003).