Natural disturbance production functions
Natural disturbances in forests are driven by physical and biological processes. Large, landscape scale disturbances derive primarily from weather (droughts, winds, ice storms, and floods), geophysical activities (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions), fires, insects, and diseases. Humans have invented ways to minimize their negative impacts and reduce their rates of occurrence. This chapter outlines ways that disturbances can be modeled using approaches familiar to economists—namely, as production processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales—and discusses the role of aggregation in characterizing their occurrence.