Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: scolytinae), the vector of Laurel Wilt

Abstract

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a native of Southeast Asia recently established in coastal forests of Georgia, SC and Florida It vectors a wilt fungus, Raffaeka sp., lethal to redbay trees, Persea borbonia L. Spreng, and certain other Lauraceae. No practical monitoring system exists for this beetle so we conducted studies to identify host attractants and develop lures. Volatiles were collected from redbay wood and bark by steam distillation, direct solvent extraction, and dynamic headspace sampling with a Poropak Q cartridge. Steam, methanol, and pentane extracts were tested as baits in trapping trials but were not attractive to X. glabratus. Major constituents in Poropak aerations identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included a-pinene, P-pinene, S3-carene, eucalyptol, p-cymene, a-copaene, terpinene-401, linalool, calmenene, and nonanoic acid. We assayed several of these compounds (including eucalyptol, p-cymene, terpinene-4-01, linalool, nonanoic acid, and caryophyllene oxide) both individually and in combination, but none were attractive at tested doses. Two other redbay odor components, a-copaene and calamenene, were unavailable in sufficient quantities commercially so we substituted manuka oil, the essential oil extracted from Leptospermum swparium Forst. and Forst., which contains high proportions of both compounds. Manuka oil was equally attractive as redbay wood to X. glubratus, but increasing release rates >lo-fold did not enhance its activity. Phoebe oil, an extract of Brazilian walnut (Phoebe porosa Mez.), which contains significant quantities of a-copaene and calamenene, was also attractive. Fractions of manuka oil were not more attractive than the whole oil. Manuka and phoebe oil are readily available and are good alternatives to redbay wood as a trap bait for monitoring X. glubratus distribution and population trends.

  • Citation: . . Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: scolytinae), the vector of Laurel Wilt. Environmental Entomology, Vol. 37(6): 1403-1409.

Pristine Version Available

An uncaptured, or “pristine” version of this publication is available. It has not been subjected to OCR and therefore does not have any errors in the text. However, it is a larger file size and some people may experience long download times.

Download “Pristine” Publication
(PDF; 1.09 MB)


Requesting Publications

You can order print copies of our publications through our publication ordering system. Make a note of the publication you wish to request, and visit our Publication Order Site.

Publication Notes

  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact the SRS webmaster if you notice any errors which make this publication unuseable.
  • To view this article, download the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.