Annual evapotranspiration of a forested wetland watershed, SC
In this study, hydro-meteorological data collected from 1 964 to 1 9 76 on an approximately 5, 000 ha predominantly forested coastal watershed (Turkey Creek) at the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC were analyzed to estimate annual evapotranspiration (E T) using four different empirical methods. The first one, reported by Zhang et a/. (2001), that takes into account annual precipitation, potential ET (PET), and a vegetation water-use factor. The second method by Lu et a/. (2003) uses annual rainfall, elevation, latitude and forest cover. The third method by Turner (199 1) uses annual rainfall, coverage of the watershed by forest and non-forest vegetation. The fourth method by Calder and Newson (1979) uses annual rainfall and Penman PET for the grass vegetation, actual forest canopy cover, interception fraction, and fraction of the wet days. Results from each of these methods were compared with the measured water balance in which annual ET is a difference of measured annual rainfall and stream flow. The study period included years with annual rainfall varying from 1853 mm (wet) to 1020 mm (dry), typical to the Southeastern coastal plain. The 13-year measured mean annual ET was 983 mm and the annual ET remained to be near PET (>go% of average Thornthwaite PET of 1079 mm) for the years exceeding the long-term average rainfall and/or the years with just below the average but with the wet antecedent year. Years with consistently below average annual rainfall yielded annual ET equivalent to 80% or less of
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