Evaluation of fumigants, EPTC herbicide, and Paenibacillus macerans in the production of loblolly pine seedlings
Chloropicrin fumigation, Eptam 7-E (EPTC) herbicide, and Paenibacillus macerans seed treatments were evaluated as alternatives to fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling production at three nurseries in the southern United States. A treatment of metam sodium/chloropicrin was also evaluated at one nursery. Seedling density was unaffected by fumigation and EPTC treatments at all nurseries. Seedling diameter and shoot weight were greater in some chloropicrin treatments during the first year at the southern Georgia nursery. The only measurable disease losses were caused by a nematode, Longidorus americanus, at the southern Georgia nursery. Soil-borne population densities of Pythium and Fusarium spp. did not significantly differ between methyl bromide and the other fumigant treatments at any nursery. Chloropicrin controlled nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) in the loamy sand soils at the southern Georgia nursery, but there were no differences between the control and the fumigant treatments at the Alabama nursery, and nutsedge was rarely found at the northern Georgia nursery. The herbicide EPTC had no effect on nutsedge when compared to the controls at all nurseries and the effects of the bacterial seed treatment were inconsistent among the nurseries. Chloropicrin and metam sodium/chloropicrin can be effective alternatives to methyl bromide for reducing soil-borne fungi and nematodes, but the effectiveness of chloropicrin for nutsedge control may be affected by soil type.