Ozone injury in west coast forests: 6 years of monitoring.
Six years of monitoring for ozone injury by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program are reported. The methods used to evaluate injury, compute an injury index, and estimate risk are described. Extensive injury was detected on ozone biomonitoring sites for all years in California, with ponderosa and Jeffrey pines, mugwort, skunkbush, and blue elderberry showing injury. Little or no injury was detected in Oregon and Washington. The relation of observed injury to ambient ozone levels is discussed. The areas with the highest modeled risk of ozone injury are the areas east of Los Angeles, the southern Sierra Nevada, and portions of the central coast.