Forest processes and global environmental change: predicting the effects of individual and multiple stressors
The purpose of this article is to review the state of prediction of forest ecosystem response to envisioned changes in the physical and chemical climate. These results are offered as one part of the forest sector analysis of the National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. This article has three sections. The first offers a very brief review of the literature on the effects of environmental factors on forest ecosystem function. The second and largest part of the article is a summary of results from the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), an integrated effort to predict ecosystem response to climate change. The third is a brief review of other regional modeling efforts that have addressed climate change or have looked at the possible effects of other components of global change, using tropospheric ozone and nitrogen deposition as examples, or both.