Harvesting impacts as a function of removal intensity
Single-tree selection, group selection, shelterwood, seed-tree, and clearcut harvesting methods were evaluated for residual site impacts. The stands were harvested during the summer of 1993 on the Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas. Manual felling and rubber-tired skidders were used to harvest all 23 stands. Percentage of area in primary skid trails was 8.2, 9.6, 13.2, 12.5, and 13.7 for the single-tree selection, group selection, shelterwood, seed-tree, and clearcut treatments, respectively. The single-tree selection treatment had the most undisturbed soil area (39.4 percent) after harvesting, as compared to 25.6 percent for the group selection, 13.1 for the shelterwood, 9.1 for the seed-tree, and 6.0 for the clearcut. Residual pine damage was greatest for the group selection treatment.