Emission and soil distribution of fumigants in forest tree nurseries
Production of tree seedlings in the majority of forest nurseries in the USA has relied on soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr) to control soil-borne plant pathogens, weeds, parasitic nematodes and insects. Since the announcement of the scheduled MeBr phase-out, a number of nurseries throughout the United States have participated in research programs on MeBr alternatives including methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP). However, a majority of the research on alternatives to MeBr in forest tree nurseries has focused on pest control efficacy. There is rarely any information in the literature on the environmental fate, emission, and soil distribution patterns of these potential alternative fumigants when applied in forest tree nurseries.