Ethanol and (-)-α-Pinene: Attractant Kairomones for Some Large Wood-Boring Beetles in Southeastern USA
Ethanol and α-pinene were tested as attractants for large wood-boring pine beetles in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in 2002 –2004. Multiple-funnel traps baited with (-)-α-pinene (released at about 2 g/d at 25–28 degrees C) were attractive to the following Cerambycidae: Acanthocinus nodosus, A. obsoletus, Arhopalus rusticus nubilus, Asemum striatum, Monochamus titillator, Prionus pocularis, Xylotrechus integer, and X. sagittatus sagittatus. Buprestis lineate (Buprestidae), Alaus myops (Elateridae), and Hylobius pales and Pachylobius picivorus (Curculionidae) were also attracted to traps baited with (-)-α-pinene. In many locations, ethanol synergized attraction of the cerambycids Acanthocinus nodosus, A. obsoletus, Arhopalus r. nubilus, Monochamus titillator, and Xylotrechus s. sagittatus (but not Asemum striatum, Prionus pocularis, or Xylotrechus integer) to traps baited with (-)-α-pinene. Similarly, attraction of Alaus myops, Hylobius pales, and Pachylobius picivorus (but not Buprestis lineate) to traps baited with (-)-α-pinene was synergized by ethanol. These results provide support for the use of traps baited with ethanol and (-)-α-pinene to detect and monitor common large wood-boring beetles from the southeastern region of the USA at ports-of-entry in other countries, as well as forested areas in the USA.