Forest Vegetation Management: Developments in the Science and Practice
The practices of forest vegetation management (FVM) have been widely adopted and continue to undergo country-specific modifications through extensive research. Beginnings of this component discipline of silviculture were in weed science in the 1960s and focused primarily on translating developing herbicide technology underway in agriculture to forestry uses. It was an attempt to replace and supplement manual and mechanical treatment methods for forest stand establishment. More re cently, FVM has become synonymous with integrated vegetation management as multiple treatments have been combined in many countries to enhance forest productivity, health and eco-services. Concerted research and development over the past 40 years has yielded options involving combinations of modern herbicides and mechanical, fire, cultural, biological and manual treatments.