Attraction of Southern Pine Engravers and Associated Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to Ipsenol, Ipsdienol, and Lanierone in Southeastern United States
We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulses (Eichhoff); eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones (±)-ipsenol, (±)-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the southeastern United States. Catches of I. avulsus and I. grandicollis to baited multiple-funnel traps wereincreased by (±)-ipsenol and (±)-ipsdienol in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina. In all four localities, the highest numbers of I. avulsus were caught in traps baited with the combination of (±)-ipsenol, (±)-ipsdienol, and lanierone. In Florida, the highest numbers of I. grandicollis were captured in traps baited with the combination of (±)-ipsenol and (±)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). In the remaining three localities, the largest catches of I. grandicollis occurred in traps baited with (±)-ipsenol alone or the combination of (±)-ipsenol and (±)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). (±)-Ipsdienol was the only consistent attractant for I. calligraphus and I. pini. Attraction of I. pini in North Carolina to (±)-ipsdienol-baited traps was synergized by lanierone but interrupted with (±)-ipsenol. The interruptive effect of (±)-ipsenol on attraction of I. pini to (±)-ipsdienol was negated by lanierone. (±)-Ipsdienol was attractive to black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier), in Florida but not North Carolina, whereas (±)-ipsdienol was attractive to I. calligraphus in Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. Both (±)-ipsenol and (±)-ipsdienol affected catches of Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) in North Carolina. Trap catches of Hylurgops rugipennis pinifex (Fitch), ,Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff, and Hylastes tenuis Eichhoff were unaffected by the pheromone treatments. The combination of (±)-ipsenol, (±)-ipsdienol, and lanierone may be a cost-effective general lure for I. avulsus, I. grandicollis, and I. pini.