The nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Torticidae): a literature review with management implications
The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), an important pest of intensively-managed loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., was first noted in the scientific literature in 1879. This pest gained notoriety with the establishment of loblolly pine monocultures throughout the southeastern United States during the 1950s. Current intensive forest management practices have led to increasing interest in managing this insect. Herein we review all Nantucket pine tip moth literature (1879-2002) by addressing the following subjects: biology and life history, natural enemies, sampling methodologies, site and stand influences, economic impact, and management strategies. Further, we provide management recommendations in the form of a decision chart that is based upon the best available information to date and our collective experience.