Monthly and seasonal variability of the land-atmosphere system
The land surface and the atmosphere can interact with each other through exchanges of energy, water, and momentum. With the capacity of long memory, land surface processes can contribute to long-term variability of atmospheric processes. Great efforts have been made in the past three decades to study land-atmosphere interactions and their importance to long-term variability. This paper reviews studies on monthly and seasonal variability of the land-atmosphere system. Issues to be addressed include the importance of land surface processes, time scales, persistence, coupled patterns of soil moisture and precipitation, and prediction. A perspective on future studies is given.