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Compass Issue 9
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Compass is a quarterly publication of the USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station (SRS). As part of the Nation's largest forestry research organization -- USDA Forest Service Research and Development -- SRS serves 13 Southern States and beyond. The Station's 130 scienists work in more than 20 units located across the region at Federal laboratories, universites, and experimental forests.



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Issue 9

New Products

Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring

1 Brown, Mark J.; New, Barry D.; Oswalt, Sonja N. [and others]. 2006. North Carolina's forests, 2002. Resour. Bull. SRS-113. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 63 p.

In 2002, forests covered 18.3 million acres in North Carolina, of which 17.7 million were classified as timberland. Hardwood forest types prevailed on 72 percent of timberland; planted pine stands occupied 15 percent. Nonindustrial private forest landowners controlled 78 percent of timberland, forest industry holdings declined to 8 percent, and publicly owned timberland totaled 13 percent. Volume of live trees totaled 33 billion cubic feet, 66 percent of which was hardwood. Planted pines made up 3.1 billion cubic feet. Loblolly pine dominated, with 6.7 billion cubic feet. Net annual growth of live trees averaged 1.2 billion cubic feet, and annual removals averaged 1.2 billion cubic feet. Softwoods made up 51 percent of growth and 59 percent of removals. Softwood removals exceeded growth by 105 million cubic feet, whereas hardwood growth exceeded removals by 104 million cubic feet. There were 249 sawmills, pulpwood mills, and other primary wood-processing plants across the State. The Coastal Plain accumulated more fuels than other regions of the State due to hurricane impacts on coastal forests.

2 Conner, Roger C.; Sheffield, Raymond M. 2005. Analysis of the timber situation in Florida, 1995 to 2025. Res. Pap. SRS-42. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 17 p.

Demand for wood fiber nationwide is expected to increase in the foreseeable future. Harvesting restrictions on forest lands in the West have increased pressure on the South's forest resources to provide more wood. The ability of Florida and other Southern States to respond is uncertain. The authors describe the current extent, condition, and availability of Florida's timber resource and project levels of growing-stock volume, net annual growth, and annual removals to the year 2025. They base projections on future timber demand, as represented by harvest requests. Overall, projections suggest that Florida is well positioned to meet increased demand for wood, in spite of an expected shortfall of available southern yellow pine volume on forest-industry timberland by 2010. However, crucial factors influencing future timber availability in Florida include retaining the current timber base and working with ever-changing public sentiments about forest-management practices.

3 Johnson, Tony G.; Bentley, James W.; Howell, Michael. 2006. The South's timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2003. Resour. Bull. SRS-114. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 52 p.

In 2003, industrial roundwood output from the South's forests totaled 8.2 billion cubic feet, 6 percent less than in 1999. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 3.2 billion cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 3.7 billion cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 3.3 billion cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 830 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 2,551 in 1999 to 2,281 in 2003. Total receipts declined 5 percent to 8.3 billion cubic feet.

4 Oswalt, Christopher M.; Oswalt, Sonja N.; Clatterbuck, Wayne K. 2007. Effects of Mictostegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus on native woody species density and diversity in a productive mixedhardwood forest in Tennessee. Forest Ecology and Management. 242: 727-732.

In a recent study conducted by scientists at the U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis unit and the University of Tennessee, researchers noted that the invasive non-native grass, Nepalese browntop (Microstegium vimineum) may significantly impact tree regeneration and woody seedling diversity following disturbance. The study, conducted on the Ames Plantation in Tennessee, examined the response of the grass to three levels of canopy disturbance associated with tree harvests. High levels of soil and canopy disturbance resulted in the formation of grass “mats” that negatively impacted the successful establishment of tree seedlings, consequently reducing regeneration success and woody seedling diversity. Additional studies continue to investigate the impacts and mechanisms of Nepalese browntop establishment and spread.

5 Pollard, James E.; Westfall, James A.; Patterson, Paul L. [and others]. 2006. Forest Inventory and Analysis national data quality assessment report for 2000 to 2003. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR 181. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 43 p. [Editor's note: David L. Gartner, Southern Research Station scientist, co-authored this publication.]

The Forest Inventory and Analysis's quality assurance program includes measurement quality objectives (MQO) for each measured variable. These MQOs consist of a measurement tolerance and a requirement compliance rate. The efficacy of these MQOs was tested by comparing data from blind check plots where a quality assurance crew measured the plot without knowledge of the first field crew's results. These QA data were collected between 2000 and 2003 and analyzed for measurement precision between FIA crews. This report is a national summary of MQO analyses. Results for each regional analysis are presented in appendix tables.

Forest Ecosystem Restoration and Management

6 Bridgwater, F.E.; Nelson, C.D. 2006. Biotechnology in the Southern Research Station: A problem analysis. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-96. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 35 p.

We provide an analysis of opportunities and challenges for biotechnology in forest research in the Southern United States. Major areas of biotechnology were identified, described, and rated for priority among three groups of researchers—private sector, public sector, and the U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station (SRS). We concluded that these groups have different research priorities with respect to biotechnology and that these differences complement each other. In particular, the SRS should continue its work in molecular marker technology development for applications in tree improvement, conservation genetics, forest health, and basic science. Also, the SRS should increase its efforts in genomics/bioinformatics, while decreasing its research on vegetative propagation. Finally, the SRS should work on assessing potential risks and impacts of planting and managing clones and/or genetically modified trees.

7 Buckley, David S.; Clatterbuck, Wayne K. (eds.) 2007. Proceedings, 15th central hardwood forest conference [CD-ROM]. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–101. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 770 p.

This proceedings of the 15th central hardwood forest conference held February 27–March 1, 2006, in Knoxville, TN, includes 86 papers and 30 posters pertaining to forest health and protection, ecology and forest dynamics, natural and artificial regeneration, forest products, wildlife, site classification, management and forest resources, mensuration and models, soil and water, agroforestry, and fire.

8 ECOMAP. 2007. Delineation, peer review, and refinement of subregions of the conterminous United States [CD-ROM]. Gen. Tech. Report WO-76A. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 11 p. [Editor's note: Station scientist W. Henry McNab coauthored this report.]

This work briefly describes the background of the U.S. Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units and the methods used for delineating map units at the subregion planning and analysis scale. Also presented is the process for scientific review and continuous refinement of ecological units and associated data of subregions.

9 Franzreb, Kathleen E. 2007. Reproductive success and nest depredation of the Florida scrub-jay. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 119(2): 162- 169.

The Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is listed as a threatened species. I studied nest predation on the Ocala National Forest in 2002 and 2003 and found that snakes were responsible for more losses that were either birds or mammals. I examined reproductive success by monitoring nests. Groups with helpers produced significantly more fledglings (0.5 more per breeding pair) and had higher daily survival rates of nests than groups lacking helpers. Population management on the Ocala National Forest will likely require habitat management to increase the number of breeding territories and reduce the effectiveness of predator communities.

10 Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Loftis, David L. 2007. Fruit production in mature and recently regenerated forests of the Appalachians. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(2): 321-335.

Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for both game and nongame wildlife. Land managers need to know how land uses affect fruit production, and how it changes over time. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance for 5 years in both young, recently harvested, and mature forest stands of 2 forest types—drier upland hardwoods and moister cove hardwood forest types. Total dry pulp biomass production was low and relatively constant in both mature forest types. In contrast, fruit production was initially low but increased each year in young stands, and was 5-19.6 times greater in young than mature stands beginning 3-5 years postharvest. In the Southern Appalachians, young, recently regenerated stands provide abundant fruit compared to mature forest stands and represent an important source of food for wildlife for several years after harvest.

11 Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Miller, Stanlee; Waldrop, Thomas A. 2007. Short-term response of shrews to prescribed fire and mechanical fuel reduction in a Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 243: 231-236.

Shrews are important as both predators and prey, and some species are rare. Because they are secretive, we know little about their habitat requirements. We trapped shrews to determine how prescribed fire and other fuel reduction methods affect them and their arthropod prey in the Southern Appalachians. Treatments were (1) prescribed burning; (2) mechanical felling of shrubs and small trees; (3) mechanical felling + burning; and (4) forested controls. Compared to other treatments, high-intensity fires and high tree mortality increased canopy openness in the mechanical felling + burn treatment. Burning reduced leaf litter depth in both burned treatments. Arthropod dry biomass was similar among all four treatments. Low-intensity fuel reduction treatments, with minimal change to canopy cover or leaf litter depth, had little detectable impact on shrews. Highintensity disturbance, such as prescribed burning that killed trees and dramatically reduced shade and leaf litter depth, reduced abundance of pygmy shrews and all shrews combined, at least in the short term.

12 Islam-Faridi, M. Nurul; Nelson, C. Dana; Kubisiak, Thomas L. 2007. Reference karyotype and cytomolecular map for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Genome. 50: 241-251.

The genus Pinus includes many commercially and ecologically important species. Detailed information about individual Pinus chromosomes has been limited due to their uniform size and shape. Identification of individual chromosomes in Pinus is a prerequisite for advancing genome research. The hybridization pattern observed for various repetitive DNA probes was used to unambiguously identify all 12 chromosomes of loblolly pine, a model species for pine genomics. A genome map consisting of unique chromosomal regions was developed and will serve as a reference for placing markers and genes on the pine genome for years to come. This map has the potential to significantly increase our understanding of genome evolution, species conservation, and to help improve marker-based selection in pine breeding programs.

13 Kremer, Antoine; Casasoli, Manuela; Barreneche, Teresa [and others]. 2007. Fagaceae trees. In: Kole, C., ed. Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants, vol. 7; Forest trees. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag: 161-187. Chapter 5. [Editor's note: SRS scientist Thomas L. Kubisiak co-authored this publication.]

This book chapter provides an overview of the current status of genome analysis on members of the family Fagaceae. The chapter synthesizes information regarding ploidy, karyotypes, genome sizes, genetic maps, comparative maps, and the genetic mapping of economic and ecologic traits of interest within relevant species. This chapter will serve as a comprehensive basis for further studies of genomes within this family, helping to aid improvement and conservation.

14 Kubisiak, T.L.; Dutech, C.; Milgroom, M.G. 2007. Fifty-three polymorphic microsatellite loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Molecular Ecology Notes. 7: 428-432.

This paper reports on the development and screening of microsatellite marker loci in Cryphonectria parasitica. Most of the markers (48 of 53) were developed from an expressed sequence tag library and, hence, offer the opportunity to examine population structure or provide genome location information for specific expressed genes versus anonymous genomic regions. In 40 isolates collected throughout the Northern Hemisphere, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14 (mean 5.17), with gene diversity values ranging from 0.049 to 0.859 (mean 0.437). The sample from Asia was found to be more diverse than the sample from Europe and North America. Results are consistent with C. parasitica originating in Asia with a recent introduction into Europe and North America.

15 Lang, Ping; Dane, Fenny; Kubisiak, Thomas L.; Huang, Hongwen. 2007. Molecular evidence for an Asian origin and a unique westward migration of species in the genus Castanea via Europe to North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43: 49-59.

In this study we used sequence data from different regions of the chloroplast genome to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and infer the biogeographical history among species within the genus Castanea. A unique westward expansion of extant Castanea species is hypothesized, with Castanea originating in eastern Asia, an initial diversification within Asia during the Eocene, followed by intercontinental dispersion and divergence between the Chinese and the European/North American species during the middle Eocene, and a split between the European and the North American species in the late Eocene. Morphological evolution of one nut per bur in the genus may have occurred independently on two continents.

16 Mehlenbacher, Shawn A.; Brown, Rebecca N.; Nouhra, Eduardo R. [and others]. 2006. A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers. Genome 49:122-133. [Editor's note: SRS scientist Thomas L. Kubisiak co-authored this publication.]

Genetic linkage maps are a prerequisite for map-based cloning of individual genes. In this study, linkage maps of European hazelnut were constructed using RAPD and SSR markers. Eleven groups were identified for each parent, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of hazelnut. The maps are quite dense and markers tightly linked to two different genes of interest. We identified the S-locus, which controls pollen-stigma incompatibility, and a locus for resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by Anisogramma anomala. These maps will serve as a starting point for future studies of the hazelnut genome, including mapbased cloning of the S-locus and the EFB resistance locus.

17 Mitchell, R.J.; Hiers, J.K.; O'Brien, J.J. [and others]. 2007. Silviculture that sustains: the nexus between silviculture, frequent prescribed fire, and conservation of biodiversity in longleaf pine forests of the Southeastern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 36: 2724-2736.

Frequent surface fires are a hallmark of the biologically diverse longleaf pine ecosystem. High fire frequency is correlated to high biodiversity, and these frequent fires are carried by fine fuels, made up in a large part by pine needle litter. Much of the focus on silvicultural management of longleaf forests has focused on maximizing timber production and pine regeneration. In forest lands where there is a focus on conservation of biodiversity, timber exploitation can still be a compatible activity, but the impact of silviculture on fine fuels and subsequent fire behavior becomes paramount. We summarize and synthesize the scientific literature to compare the impacts of various silvicultural treatments on fine fuels and subsequent fire effects in longleaf forests.

18 Plomion, C.; Chagné, D.; Pot, D. [and others]. 2007. Pines. In: Kole, C., ed. Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants, vol. 7; Forest trees. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag: 29-92. Chapter 2. [Editor's note: SRS scientists C. Dana Nelson, Craig Echt, Thomas L. Kubisiak, and M. Nurul Islam-Faridi co-authored this publication.]

This book chapter provides an overview of the current status of genome analysis on members of the family Pinaceae. The chapter synthesizes information regarding systematics and phylogeny, hybridization, cytogenetics, DNA content, genome composition, molecular diversity, genetic maps, comparative maps, and the genetic mapping of economic and ecologic traits of interest within relevant species. This chapter will serve as a comprehensive basis for further studies of genomes within this family, helping to aid improvement and conservation.

19 Saenz, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Lee A.; Baum, Kristen A.; Conner, Richard N. 2006. Abiotic correlates of anuran calling phenology: the importance of rain, temperature, and season. Herpetological Monographs. 20: 64-82.

We surveyed anuran calls nightly at eight ponds in eastern Texas from January 2001 through December 2002. Air temperatures and daily rainfall also were recorded for each site. Given the level of anuran diversity and the amount of seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall, we expected to find a variety of breeding strategies. Analyses suggested five basic strategies: (1) breeding within a predictable season (summer) independent of local weather patterns; (2) breeding opportunistically within a predictable season (summer) dependent on local rainfall; (3) breeding opportunistically within a predictable season (winter) dependent on local temperature; (4) breeding opportunistically dependent on local flood level rainfall events; (5) breeding opportunistically year round dependent on local temperature in the winter and local rainfall in the summer.

20 Schaefer, Richard R.; Fagan, Jesse F.; 2006. Commensal foraging by a fantailed warbler (Euthlypis lachrymosa) with a nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in southwestern Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 51(4): 560-562.

Occasionally a serendipitous encounter with wildlife makes for a noteworthy publication. This happened during a few days of bird observations in southwestern Mexico during January 2005. While in the Pacific lowlands of the state of Guerrero, we observed a fan-tailed warbler (Euthlypis lachrymosa) closely following a foraging nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). The warbler searched for prey, probably various invertebrates, in the leaf-litter disturbed by the armadillo. This association between these two species had previously been reported from one site in El Salvador. Our observation now shows the described behavior to be more widespread, and contributes to the ecological knowledge of the species involved.

21 Selgrade, James F.; Roberds, James H. 2007. Global attractors for a discrete selection model with periodic immigration. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications. 13(4): 275- 287.

The one-island selection-migration model provides a useful paradigm for studying the genetic and demographic properties of populations subjected to immigration but for which out-migration is not a factor. This model can be used to approximate the behavior of transgenes that have escaped into a natural population of forest trees from a genetically modified planted population of the same species. We report results pertaining to the long-term fate of transgenes in such a model. We consider cases in which fitnesses associated with the transgenic loci are controlled by two different levels of dominance. In the context of our model, levels of dominance indicate the relationship between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes with reference to trait expression, whereas fitness is a measure of the ability of individuals to transmit genes to the next generation.

22 Stover, Daniel B.; Day, Frank P.; Butnor, John R.; Drake, Bert G. 2007. Effect of elevated CO2 on coarse-root biomass in Florida scrub detected by groundpenetrating radar. Ecology. 88(5): 1328- 1334.

A joint effort between Old Dominion University, the Southern Research Station, and the Smithsonian Institute used groundpenetrating radar (GPR) to study roots nondestructively in a shrub-oak ecosystem at the Kennedy Space Center. To simulate the effect of rising atmospheric CO2, plots were fumigated with CO2-enriched air using open-top chambers. After 9 years of fumigation, it was discovered that coarse root mass increased 27 percent relative to controls, and 85 percent of the biomass in this system is stored belowground. These findings demonstrate the importance of belowground carbon storage in fireadapted ecosystems, how they will be affected by rising CO2, and the feasibility of using GPR.

Forest Values, Uses, and Policies

23 Bowker, J.M.; Bergstrom, John C.; Gill, Joshua. 2007. Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail. Tourism Economics. 13(2): 241- 260.

Many communities are interested in developing and maintaining recreational trails to benefit trail users and as tourist attractions to stimulate economic growth. In this paper we describe a study which estimates the net economic value to trail users and the local economic impacts of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in southwestern Virginia, USA. The monetary valuation results suggest that the trail is a highly valuable asset to the people who enjoy using it and to local businesses that benefit from trail-related tourist expenditures. The integrated valuation methodology and results can facilitate quantification of recreational trail economic benefits in other locations.

24 Grace, J.M., III; Skaggs, R.W.; Cassel, D.K. 2007. Influence of thinning loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on hydraulic properties of an organic soil. Transactions of American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 50(2): 517-522.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of forest thinning operations on soil hydraulic properties of a shallow organic (Belhaven series) soil in the Tidewater region of North Carolina. Soil physical properties were evaluated in a nested design by collecting soil cores from an unthinned control and following a 40-ha fifth-row thinning with selection performed on a 14-year-old loblolly pine plantation in April 2001. Thinning decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity and drained volumes for a given water table depth; however, changes in bulk density were not detected. Thinning resulted in a 3-fold decrease (from 100 to 32 cm hr-1) in saturated hydraulic conductivity.

25 Klepac, John; Rummer, Robert B.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott. 2007. Mechanical removal of Chinese privet. Res. Pap. SRS-43. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 5 p.

Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), a highly invasive nonnative plant, is prevalent in the Southern United States. Chinese privet infestations can hinder regeneration of desirable species, reduce stand productivity, and have other undesirable consequences. A combined mechanical (mulching) and chemical (triclopyr) treatment was applied to Chinese privet in forest stands in Georgia on an experimental basis. The cost of removing Chinese privet was estimated to be $737 per acre when a tracked 110- horsepower mulching machine and a two-person herbicide application crew are employed.

26 Leduc, Daniel J. 2006. PINEVOL: A user's guide to a volume calculator for southern pines. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-95. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 12 p.

Taper functions describe a model of the actual geometric shape of a tree. When this shape is assumed to be known, volume by any log rule and to any merchantability standard can be calculated. PINEVOL is a computer program for calculating the volume of the major southern pines using species-specific bole taper functions. It can use the Doyle, Scribner, or International _-inch log rules or calculate solid wood volume inside or outside of bark. This document describes the methods used in volume calculation in PINEVOL and is a program user's guide.

27 Mason, A.; Xu, Y.J; Grace, J.M., III. 2007. Comparison of stream nutrient conditions in a subtropical lowland watershed to EPA suggested criteria. In: ASABE 2007 TMDL conference. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers: 271-276.

A paired watershed study was initiated in a subtropical forested watershed within the Ouachita River Basin in Louisiana to identify stream nutrient conditions with respect to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggested criteria, and to examine changes in nutrient levels following timber harvesting operations with and without BMP implementation. The preliminary results show that the low-order streams in these watersheds frequently exceeded the suggested criteria before any harvesting activities were initiated. Average nitrite/nitrate was significantly higher than EPA's recommended level, especially during rainstorm events and warmer months. Total phosphorus varied from 0.028 to 0.104 mg L-1, which were within the EPA recommendation levels.

28 Mason, A.; Xu, Y.J.; Saksa, P. [and others]. 2007. Stream flow and nutrient dependence of temperature effects on dissolved oxygen in low-order forest streams. In: ASABE 2007 TMDL conference. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers: 374-380. [Editor's note: Station scientist J.M. Grace III co-authored this publication.]

In Louisiana, natural stream conditions such as low flow, high temperature, and high organic content often result in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels already below current water quality criteria, making it difficult to develop standards for BMPs. Along three low-order streams within a West Gulf Coastal Plain watershed in central Louisiana, stream flow conditions, temperature, organic carbon, and DO were measured for one year. The results show overall oxygen depletion in most of the sampled streams. There was a wide range of monthly DO levels, with the lowest levels generally occurring from May to July. There was a close relationship between organic carbon and DO, which appeared to be further affected by stream hydrologic conditions.

29 Wear, David N.; Carter, Douglas R.; Prestemon, Jeffrey. 2007. The U.S. South's timber sector in 2005: a prospective analysis of recent change. Gen.Tech. Rep. SRS-99. Asheville, N.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 29 p.

Our findings suggest demand for domestically produced timber products has declined somewhat in the United States, as domestic demands as well as exports have fallen. Supply of domestically produced timber products has continued to expand since the late 1990s. The net result may be (a) a decline in timber product output and (b) a disproportionately strong decline in associated prices. Evaluation of investment of wood products firms in manufacturing capacity within the Southern U.S. provides insights into future production potential. Indications are that demand for pulpwood to produce paper may not rebound to late 1990s levels in the foreseeable future. However, persistent low prices for softwood pulpwood could indicate longterm opportunities for manufacture of other products from this product class. Long-term demand for solid wood products appears strong, signaling that a relatively favorable investment climate should exist in this part of the forest sector.

30 Winn, Matthew F.; Araman, Philip A.; Wynne, Randolph H. 2005. ALOG user's manual: A guide to using the spreadsheet-based Artificial Log Generator. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS- 79. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 13 p.

Computer programs that simulate log sawing can be valuable training tools for sawyers, as well as a means of testing different sawing patterns. Most available simulation programs rely on diagrammedlog databases, which can be very costly and time consuming to develop. Artificial Log Generator (ALOG) is a user friendly Microsoft® Excel®-based program that accurately generates random, artificial-log data. The program's design is based on information from an analysis of real red oak (Quercus rubra L.) logs, which ensures the validity of the data. The program provides information about generatedlog features, and external and internal defects. An incorporated algorithm checks the grade of the generated log. This user's guide provides all the information necessary to install and run ALOG, and to interpret program output.

Threats to Forest Health

31 Campbell, Josh W.; Hanula, James L.; Waldrop, Thomas A. 2007. Observations of Speyeria diana (Diana fritillary) utilizing forested areas in North Carolina that have been mechanically thinned and burned. Southeastern Naturalist. 6(1): 179-182.

The Diana fritillary (Speyeria diana) is a forest dwelling butterfly considered very rare throughout much of its native habitat in North Carolina. In 2003 and 2004, we conducted butterfly surveys on forested, 10 ha plots in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina to which various forest management practices had been applied. During one survey (June 2004) we observed male Diana fritillary butterflies feeding on flowering sourwood (Oxydendrum arboretum) within plots that had been mechanically thinned and burned. These plots also had the greatest herbaceous plant cover. Our observations suggest that some forest management related disturbances may improve habitat for this species.

32 Eberhardt, Thomas L. 2007. A reassessment of the compressive strength properties of southern yellow pine bark. Forest Products Journal. 57(4): 95-97.

Few studies have focused on the mechanical properties of bark. Although the stiffness of bark is significantly lower than that for wood, bark contributes significantly to the resistance of stem segments to bending forces. The mechanical properties of bark are also important for practical reasons since bark can be found in wood-based composites. Samples of southern yellow pine outer bark and wood were tested in compression to determine the mechanical properties of interest. Results resolved inconsistencies in data previously reported by others. Testing of solvent-treated bark blocks suggests that although extractives are present in significant amounts, their contribution to the mechanical properties is minimal.

33 Eberhardt, Thomas L.; Elder, Thomas; Labbé. 2007. Analysis of ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood by low-field proton NMR. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 27(1): 35-47.

Wood extractives can have a significant influence over wood processing parameters, as well as the performance of wood-based products. Extractives' contents are typically determined by solvent extractions that are both time consuming and involve the handling/disposal of organic solvents. Low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was evaluated as a nondestructive and rapid technique for measuring the extractives' contents of southern pine wood specimens. Data from the analysis were positively correlated with the extractives' contents of the matchstick-sized wood specimens when in the oven-dry state. A novel pretreatment with dichloromethane-d2 allowed the determination of the extractives' contents without prior drying.

34 Gao, Heng; Shupe, Todd F.; Hse, Chung Y.; Eberhardt, Thomas L. 2006. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. Holzforschung. 60: 459- 462.

Chemicals present in Port-Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) bark are of interest for their antioxidant activities. One mechanism of activity exhibited by antioxidants involves the scavenging of free radicals which have known damaging effects. Free radical-scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activities for fractions obtained from a crude bark extract after solvent partitioning. This provided extraction and partitioning processes for the isolation of antioxidants of interest. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of each fraction could be correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. Applications for these phenolic antioxidants range from direct consumption as nutraceuticals to the incorporation into packaging materials for the protection of products from oxidation.

35 Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L. 2006. Burlap bands as a sampling technique for green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) and other reptiles commonly found on tree boles. Herpetological Review. 37(4): 427-428.

A variety of methods have been used to study lizard populations, including rubber bands, active searching and noosing, pitfall traps, glue boards, and hook extraction. In some cases, these techniques result in lizard mortality or stress. We were interested in developing a technique that successfully monitored arboreal lizards while limiting stress. We compared burlap bands wrapped around tree boles to three methods commonly used to sample lizards. We found that burlap bands provided the largest number of green anole observations in the shortest amount of time. Our results suggest that burlap bands are a simple, inexpensive, and effective way to catch or monitor bole-active lizards, and this method causes no harm to the animal or environment.

36 Miller, D.R.; Asaro, C. 2005. Ipsenol and ipsdienol attract Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and associated large pine woodborers in Southeastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(6): 2033-2040.

We found that the bark beetle pheromones (±)-ipsenol and (±)-ipsdienol were attractive to the southern sawyer beetle, Monochamus titillator, in Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, and North Carolina. These two compounds had varying effects on three other common species of wood-boring beetles in the South: Acanthocinus obsoletus, Pachylobius picivorus, and Chalcophora virginiensis.

37 Miller, D.R.; Asaro, C.; Berisford, C.W. 2005. Attraction of southern pine engravers and associated bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone in Southeastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(6): 2058-2066.

We found that the smaller southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus, and the eastern fivespined ips, I. grandicollis, were significantly attracted to traps baited with (±)-ipsenol and (±)-ipsdienol in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina. (±)-Ipsdienol was the only consistent attractant for the pine engraver, I. pini, and the sixspined ips, I. calligraphus. The interruptive effect of (±)-ipsenol on attraction of I. pini to (±)-ipsdienol was negated by lanierone, which synergized attraction of I. pini to (±)-ipsdienol.

38 Miller, Daniel R. 2007. Limonene: Attractant kairomone for white pine cone beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in an eastern white pine seed orchard in western North Carolina. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100(3): 815-822.

We found that traps baited with the pine monoterpene limonene were attractive to the white pine cone beetle, a destructive insect pest of eastern white pine cones. Further, we found that limonene increased catches of beetles to traps baited with the cone beetle pheromone pityol. Our results and those of others suggest promise in developing a semiochemical-based control program for white pine cone beetles in eastern white pine seed orchards.

39 Miller, Daniel R.; Borden, John H.; Lindgren, B. Staffan. 2005. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of Ips pini, Orthotomicus latidens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and associates in stands of lodgepole pine. Environmental Entomology. 34(3): 591-597.

We found that the pine engraver, Ips pini, exhibited dose-dependent increases in trap catches to its pheromones, ipsdienol and lanierone, whereas a sympatric species of bark beetle, Orthotomicus latidens, did not exhibit a dose-dependent response to its pheromone, ipsenol. The predator, Thanasimus undatulus, exhibited dosedependent increase in attraction to traps baited with ipsenol, whereas another species, Enoclerus sphegeus, exhibited dosedependent increases to traps baited with lanierone.

40 Miller, Daniel R.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Borden, John H. 2005. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine. Environmental Entomology. 34(5): 1019- 1027.

We examined the effect of pheromone release rates on attraction of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), a major pest of lodgepole pine in Western North America. We found that beetles exhibited a multi-functional dose response to funnel traps baited with a mixture of cis- and trans-verbenol in areas with low population levels, whereas response was directly proportional to release rate in areas with high population levels. The multi-functional response is consistent with an optimal attack density hypothesis.

41 Mulrooney, J.E.; Wagner, T.L.; Shelton, T.G. [and others]. 2007. Historical review of termite activity at Forest Service termiticide test sites from 1971 to 2004. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100(2): 488-494.

The U.S. Forest Service has a long history of providing termiticide efficacy data used for product registration and labeling. Four primary test sites (Arizona, Florida, Mississippi, and South Carolina) have been used for this purpose. Various parameters of termite attack at water-only control plots in termiticide studies installed between 1971 and 2001 were examined in this study to assess the relative pressures of termites at each site. Termite pressure was greater in the Southeast. Plots were attacked sooner and at a higher percentage than those in Arizona. In addition, damage to wooden blocks was greater in the Southeast.

42 Peterson, Chris J.; Wagner, Terence L.; Shelton, Thomas G.; Mulrooney, Joe E. 2007. New termiticides necessitate changes in efficacy testing: A case study of fipronil. In: Lyga, John W.; Theodoridis, George, eds. Synthesis and Chemistry of Agrochemicals VII. ACS symposium series 948. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society: 179-193.

Without accurate product testing methods, inferior products can enter the marketplace and put the consumer at risk. In efficacy tests conducted with the termiticide Termidor®, termites were absent from untreated plots near the treated plots. Two reasons for this were proposed: one, the high levels of insecticide used in the study area suppressed the local population or two, the active ingredient was transferred between termites and the local population was suppressed that way. Either reason removes our ability to determine if the termites were killed because of the insecticide, or if the termites were not there in the first place. A new testing method was developed that provided satisfactory results.

43 Sullivan, Brian T. 2005. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatiles isolated from conspecifics. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(6): 2067-2078.

Olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to compounds isolated from the mid/ hindguts of newly emerged conspecific adults was assayed with coupled gas chromatography-electoantennographic detection. All previously reported pheromones for D. frontalis, plus eight additional compounds, consistently elicited antennal responses from at least one sex. The eight additional compounds were bioassayed individually at three release rates for the ability to alter D. frontalis responses to traps baited with D. frontalis aggregation pheromone. Seven of the eight compounds reduced beetle aggregation responses, while one increased beetle attraction. Analyses of volatiles from individual D. frontalis indicated that the majority of the eight compounds were produced in greater quantities by newly-emerged beetles than ones initiating attacks on pine bolts. Five of the compounds were associated predominantly with one sex. Possible ecological roles of these compounds in the biology of D. frontalis are discussed. The seven newlydiscovered aggregation inhibitors for D. frontalis may prove effective in protecting individual trees from beetle attack or suppressing beetle infestations.

44 Sullivan, Brian T.; Dalusky, Mark J.; Wakarchuk, David; Berisford, C. Wayne. 2007. Field evaluations of potential aggregation inhibitors for the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 42(2): 139-149.

Semiochemicals that inhibit response of southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to its aggregation pheromone have been used with varying degrees of success to protect individual trees from attack and to stop infestation growth. However, semiochemical disruptants have not experienced wide use in management of D. frontalis, due in part to the normally prohibitive expense associated with treatments using verbenone and 4-allylanisole, the two EPAregistered semiochemicals for this species. We conducted initial trap-based screenings of candidate compounds with the aim of discovering alternatives. Baits containing either 2-phenylethanol or myrtenol significantly reduced attraction of one or both sexes of D. frontalis to traps baited with a standard attractant. In combination, the two compounds caused a 92 percent decrease in total beetle response, although reduction was not significantly greater than that produced by 2-phenylethanol alone. At specific doses, we failed to observe reduction in D. frontalis attraction by the following compounds presented singly: benzaldehyde, guaiacol, 3-methylcyclohex- 2-en-1-one (3,2-MCH), myrtenal, and verbenone.

45 Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott. 2007. Burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in the forest canopy: The unusual case of Nicrophorus pustulatus Herschel. Coleopterists Bulletin. 61(1): 121-123.

Although the importance of canopy research is now widely recognized, almost nothing is known about the vertical distribution patterns of insects in Southeastern forests. During a recent comparison of beetles captured in the canopy and near the ground in a bottomland hardwood forest, we found evidence of stratification of the burying beetle community. Nicrophorus pustulatus, a rarely collected and poorly understood burying beetle, was significantly more abundant in the canopy than near the ground. Ongoing research suggests that the canopy is more important for many insect groups than previously believed. A better understanding of canopy processes is essential for protecting biodiversity.

46 Wickham, J.D.; Riitters, K.H.; Wade, T.G.; Coulston, J.W. 2007. Temporal change in forest fragmentation at multiple scales. Landscape Ecology. 22:481-489.

Studies of temporal changes in fragmentation focus on patch and edge statistics, which might not detect changes in the spatial scale at which forest dominates the landscape. In the Chesapeake Bay region, forest patch statistics changed very little between 1991 and 2001, while at the same time, the loss rate of dominant forest was two to 10 times larger than the loss rate of forest area. The trend probably indicates a regional transition from a forest-dominated landscape to a landscape dominated by developed land uses, which could trigger other changes in the ecological function of forest land in the region.

47 Zurlini, Giovanni; Riitters, Kurt H.; Zaccarelli, Nicola; Petrosillo, Irene. 2007. Patterns of disturbance at multiple scales in real and simulated landscapes. Landscape Ecology. 22:705-721.

Previous national assessments of forest fragmentation identified the need for better indicators of fragmentation and more efficient computational approaches. This paper develops a framework to characterize and interpret the spatial patterns of disturbances at multiple scales. Domains of scale are defined in pattern metric space and mapped in geographic space, which identifies the scale of fragmentation in different places. The conceptual model is illustrated with simulated maps and real disturbance maps from satellite imagery in south Italy. The new technique will be used in the future US national assessments of forest disturbance and fragmentation.

Forest Watershed Science

48 Adams, Susan B. 2006. Dainties of the first order. Wings: Essays on Invertebrate Conservation. 29(2): 4-7.

Scientists have learned a great deal about crayfish in the past 100 years, including that hundreds of crayfish species are native to the U.S. Over 75 percent of the world's crayfish species are native to North America. Cambaridae is the largest family, and 80 percent of those species are native to the Southeastern U.S. Crayfish are surprisingly variable in size, color, behavior, and habitats occupied, and serve complex and important roles in aquatic and terrestrial ecology. As with many aquatic organisms, conservation threats come in many forms, one of which is invasion by nonnative crayfish introduced via live food, fish bait, and pet trades.

49 Barker, S.; Benítez, S.; Baldy, J. [and others]. 2006. Modeling the South American range of the cerulean warbler. Paper UC-1656. In: Proceedings of 26th ESRI International User Conference. http://gis2.esri.com/library/userconf/ proc06/papers/papers/pap_1656.pdf. [Date accessed: May 3, 2007]. [Editor's note: Southern Station scientist Paul B. Hamel co-authored this publication.]

Successful conservation of rare species requires detailed knowledge of distribution. Modeling spatial distribution is an efficient means of locating potential habitats. Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, Parulidae) was listed as a Vulnerable Species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 2004. These Neotropical migratory birds breed in Eastern North America. The entire population migrates to the northern Andes in South America to spend the nonbreeding period. We developed spatial hypotheses of the bird's occurrence in South America. We summarized physical, climatic, and recent land-cover data for the northern Andes using ESRI software, ArcGIS. We developed five hypothetical distributions. Combining results of the different models on the same map allowed us to design a rigorous strategy to ground-truth the map and thus identify sites for protection of the species in South America.

50 Bowen, Liessa T.; Moorman, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C. 2007. Seasonal bird use of canopy gaps in a bottomland forest. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 119(1): 77-88.

We studied the relative use of mature forest versus small gaps in the forest canopy (0.33-1.25-ac harvest openings) by birds from spring through fall in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. We documented more birds, including species typically associated with the forest interior, in canopy gaps than in surrounding mature forest during all seasons. Birds used mature forest more during the breeding season than other periods, but most species selectively chose gap habitat over surrounding mature forest during the nonbreeding periods. The creation of small canopy gaps within a mature forest may increase local bird species richness.

51 Coyle, D.R.; Coleman, M.D.; Durant, J.A.; Newman, L.A. 2006. Survival and growth of 31 Populus clones in South Carolina. Biomass & Bioenergy. 30(8-9): 750-758.

Populus species and hybrids have many practical applications, but clonal performance is relatively undocumented in the Southeastern United States outside of the Mississippi River alluvial floodplain. In spring 2001, 31 Populus clones were planted on two sites in South Carolina, USA. The sandy, upland site received irrigation and fertilization throughout the growing season, while the bottomland site received granular fertilizer yearly and irrigation in the first two years only. Over three growing seasons, tree survival and growth differed significantly among clones at both sites. We emphasize that information presented is preliminary, and that clones should be followed through an entire rotation before large-scale deployment.

52 Ford, Chelcy R.; Vose, James M. 2007. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. mortality will impact hydrologic processes in Southern Appalachian forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 17(4): 1156-1167.

Eastern hemlock, an important streamside and cove species in Southern Appalachian forests, is facing widespread mortality from hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), an exotic invasive insect. To estimate the impact that the loss of hemlock will have on forest water balance, we measured hemlock water use (transpiration) over a range of tree sizes for 2 years. Daily tree transpiration was substantial; large trees transpired as much as 186 kg (or 49 gal) water tree-1 day-1. With increasing HWA infestation and progressive loss of leaf area, we expect further declines in transpiration rates. For Southern Appalachian forests specifically, we estimate that eastern hemlock mortality could reduce annual and winter and spring forest transpiration by 10 and 30 percent, respectively. We also expect that the loss of eastern hemlock from streamside areas and coves will alter stream flow quantity and timing.

53 Ford, Chelcy R.; Wurzburger, Nina; Hendrick, Ronald L.; Teskey, Robert O. 2007. Soil DIC uptake and fixation in Pinus taeda seedlings and its C contribution to plant tissue and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Tree Physiology. 27(3): 375-384.

Plants can acquire carbon (C) from sources other than atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), including soil-dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Soil DIC can be taken up by the roots, transported within the plant, and fixed through both light and dark reactions. We exposed loblolly pine seedlings to a 13C-enriched soil DIC solution with two levels of ammonium (NH4+) and measured the amount of C acquired from soil DIC in plant tissues. Our results indicate the potential for uptake and fixation of exogenous soil CO2 and the reincorporation of root-respired CO2 in forest trees. While soil DIC only contributes a small amount to C gain in forest trees, it may be important in C fixation processes of specific tissues, such as newly formed stems and fine roots, and ectomycorrhizal roots assimilating NH4+.

54 Haag, Wendell R.; Warren, Melvin L. 2007. Freshwater mussel assemblage structure in a regulated river in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Basin, USA. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 17(1): 25-36.

We document a diverse freshwater mussel community (20 species) in Lower Lake, an impounded, regulated portion of the Little Tallahatchie River below Sardis Dam in Panola County, MS. Lower Lake represents one of the few areas of stable large stream habitat in the region. The diverse mussel community present in this highly modified habitat suggests that a large component of the regional mussel fauna is relatively resilient and adaptable and is limited primarily by the absence of stable river reaches. Management actions that increase stream stability are likely to result in expansion of the mussel fauna and restoration of a valuable component of ecosystem function.

55 Haag, Wendell R.; Warren, Melvin L., Jr. 2006. Seasonal feeding specialization on snails by river darters (Percina shumardi) with a review of snail feeding by other darter species. Copeia. 4: 604- 612.

We report food habits of river darters (Percina shumardi) in Brushy Creek and the Sipsey Fork, Black Warrior River, AL. River darters preyed heavily on pleurocerid snails in both streams. Snail feeding was highest in October when snails represented nearly 100 percent of darter food items. Snail feeding declined through the spring, but increased to high levels in July when hatchling snails composed about 80 percent of darter food items. Non-snail food items were dominated by insect larvae, most commonly eaten during periods of low snail feeding or feeding on hatchling snails. Few other fish species prey heavily on riverine snails. Percina shumardi and P. tanasi represent two of the few native fishes that exploit the abundant and diverse pleurocerid snail fauna of Eastern North America.

56 Hawkins, Tracy S. 2006. A forest transect of Pine Mountain, Kentucky: Changes since E. Lucy Braun and chestnut blight. Journal of Kentucky Academy of Sciences. 67(2): 73-80.

Forest composition and structure were determined for Hi Lewis Pine Barrens State Nature Preserve, a 68-ha tract on the south slope of Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky. Four forest types were identified: Liriodendron-Acer, Quercus-Tsuga, mixed Quercus, and Pinus-Quercus. Percent canopy compositions were compared with those reported by Dr. E. Lucy Braun prior to the peak of chestnut blight. Chestnut remains an important component in the subcanopy and is present in the groundcover in three types. Except for its absence, species composition of Braun's forest types has remained relatively unchanged during the past 70 years; however, loss of chestnut initiated changes in the relative importance of these species, resulting in varying degrees of transition to post-blight forest types.

57 Lockhart, Brian Roy; Weih, Robert C., Jr.; Smith, Keith M. 2005. Crown radius and diameter at breast height relationships for six bottomland hardwood species. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Sciences. 59: 110-115.

The relationship between a tree's crown radius and diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) has a variety of uses, including stocking relationships and tree volume estimations. Estimating d.b.h. from mean crown radius (MCR) is of interest to managers because MCR can be estimated from digital imagery using remote sensing techniques. D.B.H. is a common tree dimensional characteristic that is used to quantify tree and stand structure. This research presents MCR/d.b.h. and d.b.h./ MCR relationships for boxelder, sweet pecan, sugarberry, green ash, Nuttall oak, and American elm. The linear model, y=a + b * x, provided the best model fit with adjusted r2 values of 0.567 to 0.855.

58 Moorman, Christopher E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John C. [and others]. 2007. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest. Journal of Field Ornithology. 78(1): 11-20.

Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability in timber harvest openings, and less about how diets vary seasonally. We assessed bird diet composition from spring through fall in relation to arthropod availability in mature forest and in small timber harvest openings. Birds primarily consumed arthropods of eight orders, with no apparent seasonal shifts among orders. The more heavily used orders were slightly more abundant in mature forest than in harvest openings, yet birds were more abundant in openings. Thus, birds did not simply use areas with the greatest food abundance. They were likely attracted to the openings by the protective cover provided by dense understory vegetation.

59 National Agroforestry Center. 2007. Buffer$—An economic analysis tool [CD-ROM]. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRSe100. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.

Buffer$ is an economic spreadsheet tool for analyzing the cost-benefits of conservation buffers by resource professionals. Conservation buffers are linear strips of vegetation managed for multiple landowner and societal objectives. The Microsoft® Excel™-based product can calculate potential income derived from a buffer, including income from cost-share/incentive programs, agroforestry specialty products, leases, and other enterprise sources. The program can compare a proposed buffer income stream to that of various cropping alternatives. The tool can also be used to evaluate the economic impacts of removing an existing buffer.

60 Predny, Mary L.; DeAngelis, Patricia; Chamberlain, James L. 2006. Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa): an annotated bibliography. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS- 97. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 99 p.

Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America. Native Americans used black cohosh to treat rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications associated with childbirth. Europeans have used this important medicinal plant to treat menopausal symptoms for over 40 years. Clinical evidence supports the efficacy and safety of black cohosh for these symptoms. Decisions by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on hormone replacement therapy have resulted in increased demand. Nearly 100 percent of black cohosh raw materials are wild harvested. Conservation groups list the species as “at risk” in the United States and “endangered” in Illinois and Massachusetts. Research is underway to determine sustainable harvest levels and to establish suitable cultivation methods.

61 Samuelson, Lisa J.; Stokes, Thomas A.; Coleman, Mark D. 2007. Influence of irrigation and fertilization on transpiration and hydraulic properties of Populus deltoides. Tree Physiology. 27(5): 765-774.

Water used by forest trees is known as transpiration, necessary for vigorous and healthy forests. Transpiration is measured to understand growth requirements and to estimate how much water will drain from forest landscapes. Ability to predict water yield will become increasingly important as we study impacts of environmental change. There is only limited information on how different rates of growth may control water use. This study monitored water use in fast growing trees that had been fertilized and irrigated, and compared results to water use in slower growing trees that had not been fertilized and irrigated. Greater transpiration in fast growing trees was partially due to the fact that they had more leaves. However, leaves did not explain all the increase. They also had a larger amount of wood for each square meter of leaf surface. The balance between leaf and sap wood area was important in understanding differences in water use of forest trees.

62 Smith, David R.; Schiff, Nathan M. 2005. A new western Nearctic species of Calameuta Konow (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Proceedings of Entomological Society of Washington. 107(4): 864-868.

We describe Calameuta middlekauffi, a new species, from southern Oregon and California. It is the second species of Calameuta in North America and is differentiated from C. clavata (Norton) by head shape and coloration. Illustrations, descriptions, and a key are given to separate the two species. The food plant is unknown, but Palearctic species of Calameuta are known to feed in grass stems.

63 Taylor, Christopher M.; Holder, Thomas L.; Fiorillo, Riccardo A. [and others]. 2006. Distribution, abundance, and diversity of stream fishes under variable environmental conditions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63: 43-54. [Editor's note: Station scientist Melvin L. Warren, Jr. co-authored this publication.]

Effects of stream size and flow regime on spatial and temporal variability of stream fish distribution, abundance, and diversity patterns were investigated in streams in forested watersheds in the Ouachita Mountains, AR. Assemblage variability and species richness were significantly associated with a complex environmental gradient contrasting smaller, hydrologically variable stream localities with larger localities characterized by more stable flow regimes. Assemblages showing least variability were the most species rich and occurred in relatively large, stable environments. We suggest that spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the environment largely determines both assemblage richness and variability. Changes in species richness of local assemblages across time were coordinated across the landscape. These results suggest an important link between local community dynamics and community-wide occurrence. At the species level, mean local persistence was significantly associated with regional occurrence. Thus, the more widespread a species was, the greater its local persistence. Results illustrate how integrity of local stream fish assemblages is dependent on local environmental conditions, regional patterns of species distribution, and landscape continuity.

64 Wilson, A. Dan. 2007. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm. Plant Pathology Journal. 6(1): 1-13.

This article provides final results of a study initiated over 10 years ago to investigate occurrence of a specialized group of fungi in wild grasses stored within a seed bank of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. These important and unique fungi known as clavicipitaceous endophytes form perpetual symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationships with their grass hosts. Incidence of these fungi was determined in 17 species of wild barley (Hordeum species) from many countries and regions throughout the world. This discovery has great potential significance because these fungi are known to be very effective biological agents useful for control of numerous major insect and disease pests in cultivated barley and other cereal grasses

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Cerulean warbler
Research findings help resource managers create habitat for wildlife such as the Cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea), a neotropical migratory songbird
(Photo © Mike S. Nichols.)

Dieing Oak Tree
Tanoak showing sudden oak death symptoms. (Photo by Joseph O’Brien, U.S. Forest Service, www.bugwood.org)