Compass issue 15
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Compass is a quarterly publication of the USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station (SRS). As part of the Nation's largest forestry research organization -- USDA Forest Service Research and Development -- SRS serves 13 Southern States and beyond. The Station's 130 scienists work in more than 20 units located across the region at Federal laboratories, universites, and experimental forests.

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Issue 15

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Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring

1 Cooper, Jason; Becker, Charles. 2009. Virginia’s timber industry— an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–155. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 33 p.

In 2007, roundwood output from Virginia’s forests decreased 8 percent to 464 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 175 million cubic feet, 3 percent less than in 2005. Seventy-fi ve percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fi ber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 219 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 162 million cubic feet; composite panels were third at 54 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 196 in 2005 to 179 in 2007. Total receipts decreased 7 percent to 480 million cubic feet.

2 Cooper, Jason; Mann, Michael. 2009. North Carolina’s timber industry— an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–156. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 33 p.

In 2007, industrial roundwood output from North Carolina’s forests totaled 728 million cubic feet, 7 percent less than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 4 percent to 294 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fi ber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 348 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 280 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 50 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 180 in 2005 to 163 in 2007. Total receipts decreased by 37 million cubic feet to 714 million cubic feet.

3 Howell, Michael; Johnson, Tony. 2009. Mississippi’s timber industry— an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–157. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 31 p.

In 2007, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi’s forests totaled 894 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 18 percent to 316 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 401 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 379 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 76 million cubic feet. There was a total of 84 primary processing plants in 2007, a loss of 32 since 2005. Total receipts decreased 18 percent to 746 million cubic feet.

4 Johnson, Tony; Nowak, Jarek; Mathison, Rhonda. 2009. Florida’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–153. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 31 p.

In 2007, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida’s forests totaled 491 million cubic feet, 10 percent more than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased to 167 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 237 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 177 million cubic feet; composite panel production was third at 30 million cubic feet. Total receipts were up 10 percent to 506 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants totaled 69 in 2007 compared to 93 in 2005.

5 Mathison, Rhonda; Nevins, Christopher. 2009. Kentucky’s timber industry— an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–154. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 31 p.

In 2007, roundwood output from Kentucky’s forests totaled 186 million cubic feet, 3 percent less than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 5 percent to 90 million cubic feet. Seventy-seven percent of plant residues were used, primarily for fuel, miscellaneous, and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 144 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked a distant second at 25 million cubic feet; composite panels were third at 9 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 292 in 2005 to 253 in 2007. Total receipts declined 7 percent to 200 million cubic feet.

6 Mathison, Rhonda M.; Bentley, James W.; Johnson, Tony G. 2009. East Texas harvest and utilization study, 2008. Resour. Bull. SRS–160. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 26 p.

In 2008, a harvest and utilization study was conducted on 80 operations throughout eastern Texas. There were 2,024 total trees measured: 1,335 or 66 percent were softwood, while 689 or 34 percent were hardwood. Results from this study showed that 86 percent of the total softwood volume measured was utilized for a product, and 14 percent was left as logging residue. Seventyfive percent of the hardwood volume measured was utilized for a product, while 25 percent was left as logging residue.

7 Mathison, Rhonda M.; Schnabel, Doug. 2009. Tennessee’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–152. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 29 p.

In 2007, roundwood output from Tennessee’s forests was 297 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 114 million cubic feet. Seventy percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 166 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 117 million cubic feet; other industrial products were third at 12 million cubic feet. There were 329 primary processing plants operating in Tennessee in 2007. Total receipts amounted to 327 million cubic feet.

8 Rose, Anita K. 2009. Virginia’s forests, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–159. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 77 p.

Between 2002 and 2007, the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted the eighth inventory of the forests of Virginia. About 15.7 million acres, or 62 percent, of Virginia was forested. The majority (12.4 million acres) of Virginia’s forest land was in nonindustrial private forest ownership. Public ownership and forest industry ranked second and third, with 2.8 and 0.6 million acres, respectively. Red maple dominated the number of live stems; loblolly pine was second. While yellow-poplar was the most dominate species for live-tree volume as a genus, oaks accounted for 33 percent of the live-tree volume. Biomass of coarse woody debris on forest health plots averaged 2.9 tons per acre for the state.

9 Schiller, James R.; McClure, Nathan; Risher, Willard. 2009. Georgia’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–161. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 35 p.

In 2007, industrial roundwood output from Georgia’s forests totaled 1.21 billion cubic feet, 4 percent more than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 5.6 percent to 413 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 611 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 412 million cubic feet; composite panels third at 98 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants was down from 181 in 2005 to 168 in 2007. Total receipts increased slightly from 1.21 billion cubic feet in 2005 to 1.22 billion cubic feet in 2007.

Forest Ecosystem Restoration and Management

10 Bragg, Don C.; Shelton, Michael G.; Guldin, James M. 2009. Restoring oldgrowth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research. In: Deal, R.L., tech. ed. Integrated restoration of forested ecosystems to achieve multiresource benefits: Proceedings of the 2007 national silvicultural workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW–GTR– 733. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 211–224.

The successful restoration of old-growthlike loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied us with the tools for restoration efforts. For example, the CEF’s Good and Poor Farm Forestry Forties have been under uneven-aged silvicultural prescriptions for 70 years. Monitoring these demonstration areas has provided insights on pine regeneration, structural and compositional stability, endangered species management, and sustainability capable of guiding prescriptions for old-growth-like pine forests.

11 Brockway, Dale G.; Outcalt, Kenneth W.; Estes, Becky L.; Rummer, Robert B. 2009. Vegetation response to midstory mulching and prescribed burning for wildfire hazard reduction and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem restoration. Forestry. 8(3): 299–314.

In forests where high-density midstories developed during long periods of fire exclusion, the effectiveness of mechanical mulching alone and mulching followed by prescribed burning during winter, spring, and summer were examined as approaches for reducing the risk of wildfire and developing stand structures better suited for the reintroduction of periodic surface fire. Although mulching did improve stand structure by eliminating midstory “fuel ladder,” the rapid regrowth of hardwoods indicated that prompt follow-up burning with prescribed fire is necessary to curtail the redevelopment of the dense midstory. Although mechanical mulching can be useful as a one-time treatment for reducing stand density, it needs to be followed with periodic surface fire to maintain forest structure and improve upon initial gains observed for understory plants.

12 Butnor, John R.; Pruyn, M.L.; Shaw, D.C. [and others]. 2009. Detecting defects in conifers with ground penetrating radar: applications and challenges. Forest Pathology. 39: 309–322.

This study was designed to determine if ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used to nondestructively estimate decay in living conifers common in the Northwest United States. Near-surface decay, air-filled hollows, and desiccated boles have unique electromagnetic signatures, which could be separated from other defects. However, separation of mild to severe decay from benign reflectors, e.g., moisture gradient between sapwood and heartwood, in conifers was much less diagnostic than in hardwood species. A limited assessment of sugar maple showed that GPR has potential to detect decay in hardwoods; however, more research is needed to outline the full range of detectable defects.

13 Haywood, James D. 2009. Influence of pine straw harvesting, prescribed fire, and fertilization on a Louisiana longleaf pine site. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 33(3): 115–121.

The author studied a 34-year-old, directseeded stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to examine how pine straw management practices affect the growth of the longleaf pine overstory and the yield of pine straw. A randomized design tested two levels of fertilization, overstory thinning, prescribed fire over several years, and pine straw harvest. Fertilization did not affect longleaf pine growth over the 15-year study. The management treatments also did not influence longleaf pine growth, possibly because the adverse effects of competition, repeated prescribed burning, and litter removal could not be separated. Fertilization did not directly affect pine straw yields; however, it appeared that pine straw yields decreased over time.

14 Loeb, Susan C.; Post, Christopher J.; Hall, Steven T. 2009. Relationship between urbanization and bat community structure in national parks of the Southeastern U.S. Urban Ecosystems. 12(2): 197–214.

Urbanization and development are predicted to increase considerably in the United States over the next several decades, resulting in large-scale loss of wildlife species and making natural parks and preserves increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity. We determined the number of bat species and their evenness (number of individuals per species) in 10 national parks in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia to test the effects of urbanization and development on bat species in the Southeast. We found that urban parks had a similar number of bat species as rural parks and, thus, may serve as important refuges. However, the bat communities in urban parks were highly dominated by one species, the big brown bat. This suggests that some bats may be more susceptible to the effects of urbanization and may be extirpated over time. Thus, management of urban as well as rural parks should strive to conserve as much bat roosting and foraging habitat as possible.

15 Johnsen, Kurt H.; Butnor, John R.; Kush, John S. [and others]. 2009. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 33(4): 178–181.

Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (P. elliottii) or loblolly pine (P. taeda). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina, a category 3 hurricane that directly affected the stand in August 2005. The experiment included 120 plots of 100 trees each; the stand was established in 1960. Following the hurricane, each tree was rated with respect to mortality from wind damage. Longleaf pine suffered less mortality (7 percent) than the other two species (slash pine, 14 percent; loblolly pine, 26 percent), although the differences in mortality were statistically significant only between longleaf pine and loblolly pine. Longleaf pine lost significantly fewer stems per hectare and less basal area than the two other species. Differences in mortality among species were not a function of mean plot tree height or plot density. Our analyses indicate that longleaf pine is more resistant to wind damage than loblolly pine.

16 Perry, Roger W.; Rudolph, D. Craig; Thill, Ronald E. 2009. Reptile and amphibian responses to restoration of fi re-maintained pine woodlands. Restoration Ecology. 7(6): 917–927.

Fire-maintained woodlands and savannas are being restored by forest managers, but little information exists on herpetofaunal responses to this restoration in areas dominated by shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). We compared habitat characteristics and herpetofaunal communities in restored pine woodlands to relatively unmanaged, second-growth forests in the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas. We found woodland restoration with periodic burning affected species differently; some species benefi ted, some species appeared negatively affected, but most species did not respond clearly either way. Overall reptile captures were signifi cantly greater in pine-woodlands than in unrestored forest. Among anurans, we found no signifi cant difference in captures between woodlands and unrestored forests for any species. Among salamanders, we captured western slimy salamanders (Plethodon albagula) almost exclusively in unrestored forest, but captures of other species did not differ between the two treatments. Historically, the Ouachita region likely consisted of a mosaic that included both fi re-maintained habitats and areas of denser forest on mesic sites that were less likely to burn. Consequently, landscapes that retain both open woodlands and denser, less-intensely burned forest would likely promote and maintain a greater diversity of herpetofauna.

17 denser, less-intensely burned forest would likely promote and maintain a greater diversity of herpetofauna.

After more than 50 years of research and selective breeding, blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) trees will soon be available for planting into the species’ preblight range. Increased understanding of the regeneration requirements of pure American chestnut will increase the success of future efforts to establish blight-resistant chestnut. We quantifi ed survival and initial growth of bare-root American chestnut seedlings at fi ve locations in eastern Kentucky. Seedling survival was 57 percent and seedling height averaged 94 cm following two growing seasons. Chestnut seedlings grew best in shelterwood overstory treatment areas on mesic sites. The high-light environment created by shelterwood overstory removal resulted in better initial seedling growth, but the moderate light of the midstory removal treatment may ultimately provide chestnut seedlings a greater advantage over competing vegetation.

18 Spetich, Martin A.; Dey, Daniel; Johnson, Paul. 2009. Shelterwoodplanted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options. Journal of Applied Forestry. 33(4): 182–186.

Tree biology, environmental site conditions, relative monetary costs, management options, and the competitive struggle between planted trees and other vegetation were integrated when underplanting northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings in Boston Mountain shelterwoods. This analysis is partly based on previous research that determined the competitive capacity of more than 4,000 seedlings planted under shelterwood overstories. Using these probabilities in our simple accounting of cost, the cost of obtaining one competitively successful tree was calculated under various combinations of environmental variables, silvicultural treatments, and seedling sizes. A successful tree was defi ned as one predicted to survive and attain dominance or codominance 11 years after planting. The cost of trees that were not likely to survive or reach a dominant or codominant position was added to the cost of obtaining a successful tree. Results provide a practical tool for evaluating various planting options in relation to both associated costs and the expected biological success of alternative planting prescriptions.

19 Sword Sayer, Mary Anne; Haywood, James D.; Sung, Shi-Jean Susana. 2009. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings. Forest Science. 55(5): 377–389.

We tested the effects of cavity size and copper root pruning on longleaf pine seedling morphology and root system development in a greenhouse and 1 year postplanting. Seedling size was increased by root pruning in small, but not larger cavities. Before planting, root pruning increased taproot and secondary lateral root weights, decreased primary lateral root weight, and increased root growth potential in the top 5 cm of the plug. Root pruning did not affect the morphology of 1-year-old seedlings. However, of the lateral root weight that elongated after planting, 33 percent more occurred in the upper 5 cm with root pruning.

Forest Values, Uses, and Policies

20 Abt, Karen L.; Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Gebert, Krista M. 2009. Wildfire suppression cost forecasts for the US Forest Service. Journal of Forestry. 107(4): 173–178.

The U.S. Forest Service (FS) and other land management agencies seek better tools for anticipating future expenditures for wildfire suppression. We developed regression models for forecasting FS suppression spending at 1-, 2-, and 3-year lead times. We compared these models to another readily available forecast model, the 10-year moving average model, and found that the regression models do a better job of forecasting the expenditures for all three time horizons. When evaluated against the historical data, our models were particularly better at forecasting the more recent years (2000 to 2007) than the less sophisticated models. The regression models also allowed us to generate, using simulation methods, forecast statistics such as the means, medians, and confidence intervals of costs. These additional statistics provide policymakers, wildfire managers, and planners more information than a single forecast value.

21 Eberhardt, Thomas L.; So, Chi- Leung; Protti, Andrea; So, Po-Wah. 2009. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance. Holzforschung. 63: 75–79.

Contrast agents have an established track record for use in medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To evaluate contrast agent applicability for MRI for wood composites, plywood panels were fabricated with untreated and gadoliniumchloride- treated wood veneers. Signal dropout for the treated veneer demonstrated the first successful use of a contrast agent to manipulate the signal intensity of a wood component within a composite structure. This technique shows promise for nondestructive twoand three-dimensional assessments of wood component, e.g., veneers, flakes, and particles, distributions and orientations in wood composites.

22 Grace, Johnny M.; Clinton, Barton D. 2009. Protecting soil and water in forest road management. American Society of Agriculture and Biological Engineers. 50(5): 1579–1584.

The article provides an overview of issues involved in managing the Nation’s public forest roads for the protection of soil and water, exploring the benefits and efficacies of erosion mitigation, sediment control, and road Best Management Practices in protecting soil and water. The pattern of use of national forest roads for recreation has increased dramatically since the late 1940s and is expected to continue to increase. However, research over the past 60 years clearly presents forest roads as a major source of sediment and soil erosion from forest watersheds. Road management is an important component in preserving and maintaining healthy forests throughout the Nation.

23 Greene, John L.; Bullard, Steven H.; Cushing, Tamara L.; Beauvais, Theodore. 2006. Effect of the Federal estate tax on nonindustrial private forest holdings. Journal of Forestry. 104(1): 15–20.

Using a questionnaire mailed to randomly selected members of two forest owner organizations, the authors determined that 38 percent of forest estates owed Federal estate tax, a rate many times higher than nonforest estates. In 28 percent of the cases where estate tax was due, timber or land was sold because other assets were not adequate to pay the tax. In 29 percent of the cases where land was sold, it was converted to a more developed use. These results were generally consistent with similar data collected from rural landowners.

24 Jacobson, Michael G.; Greene, John L.; Straka, Thomas J. [and others]. 2009. Influence and effectiveness of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry in the South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 33(1): 35–42.

State forestry officials responsible for forestry incentive programs in each of the 13 southern states were surveyed about financial incentive programs available to nonindustrial private forest owners. They were asked to name and describe the public and private programs available in their state, assess forest owners’ awareness of each program, its appeal among the owners aware of it, its effectiveness in encouraging sustainable forestry and enabling owners to meet their objectives, and the percent of program practices that remain in place and enrolled acres that remain in forest over time.

25 Perkins, Brian; Smith, Bob; Araman, Philip. 2008. Analyzing the feasibility of utilizing small diameter hardwood timber for solid wood products and residues. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–111. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 12 p.

The eastern hardwood forest contains small-diameter timber that is often of lower quality and lower value than larger sawtimber. This small-diameter hardwood timber has traditionally been utilized for pulpwood, but it can also be used for lumber and residue production. In order to increase the utilization of this resource by sawmills, a number of analyses need to be conducted. These analyses include a resource analysis, yield analysis, economic analysis, and finally a market analysis. This report gives detailed instructions for conducting each of these analyses. The successful completion of these analyses will help hardwood lumber companies determine if using small-diameter hardwood timber is a good decision for their company.

26 Wang, Linda; Greene, John L. 2009. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year. Manage. Bull. R8–MB 134. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Region. 2 p.

This bulletin summarizes Federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns.

Threats to Forest Health

27 Hanula, James L.; Wade, Dale D.; O’Brien, Joseph; Loeb, Susan C. 2009. Ground-dwelling arthropod association with coarse woody debris following long-term dormant season prescribed burning in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida. Florida Entomologist. 92(2): 229–242.

A 5-year study of long-term (40 years) study plots was conducted on the Osceola National Forest in northern Florida to determine how dormant-season fire frequency (annual, biennial, quadrennial, or unburned) affects ground-dwelling macroarthropod use of coarse woody debris in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests. Pitfall traps near logs or metal drift fences of equal lengths were used to sample arthropods. Samples were identified to genus or the lowest practical taxonomic level. Overall, significantly more arthropods and more arthropod biomass were captured near drift fences than near logs. Similarity of arthropods captured near logs or drift fences ranged from 64.4 percent in annually burned plots to 69.2 percent in quadrennially burned plots, with no significant differences noted.

28 Hargrove, William W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Hoffman, Forrest M. 2009. Toward a national early warning system for forest disturbances using remotely sensed canopy phenology. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing. 75: 1150–1156.

Imagine a national system with the ability to quickly identify forested areas under attack from insects or diseas. Moderate resolution (ca. 500 m) remote sensing repeated at frequent (ca. weekly) intervals could power such a monitoring system that would respond in near realtime. An ideal warning system would be national in scope, automated, able to improve its prognostic ability with experience, and would provide regular map updates online in familiar and accessible formats.

29 Liu, Yongquiang; Goodrick, Scott; Achtemeier, Gary. 2009. Smoke incursions into urban areas: simulation of a Georgia prescribed burn. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 18: 336–348.

This study investigates smoke incursion into urban areas by examining a prescribed burn in central Georgia on February 28, 2007. Simulations were conducted with a regional modeling framework to understand transport, dispersion, and structure of smoke plumes; the air quality effects; sensitivity to emissions; and the roles of burn management strategy in mitigating the effects. The results indicate that smoke plumes first went west, but turned northwest at noon owing to a shift in wind direction. The smoke then invaded Metropolitan Atlanta during the evening rush hour, causing severe air quality problems.

30 Nowak, John; Asaro, Christopher; Klepzig, Kier; Billings, Ronald. 2008. The southern pine beetle prevention initiative: working for healthier forests. Journal of Forestry. 106(5): 261–267.

The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest pest in the South. After a recent SPB outbreak, the U.S. Forest Service [Forest Health Protection and Southern Research Station (SRS)] received SPB Initiative (SPBI) funding to focus more resources on proactive SPB prevention work. This funding is being used for on-the-ground accomplishments, landowner education, and research and development. Since 2003, on-the-ground accomplishments have totaled over 500,000 acres of thinning and restoration work on State, private, and national forest land. The SRS has worked, internally and externally, on projects addressing (1) the risks and costs of SPB, (2) preventing and controlling SPB outbreaks, and (3) recovery from SPB outbreaks.

31 Qi, S.; Sun, G.; Wang, Y. [and others]. 2009. Streamflow response to climate and landuse changes in a coastal watershed in North Carolina. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 52(3): 739–749.

It is essential to examine the sensitivity of hydrologic responses to climate and land use change across different physiographic regions in order to formulate sound water management policies for local response to projected global change. This study used a simulation model to examine the potential impacts of climate and land use changes on streamflow of the Trent River basin in North Carolina. We predicted that streamflow of individual years could change from −93 percent to 238 percent under a changing climate. Streamflow was more sensitive to prescribed changes in precipitation than to air temperature. The likely impacts of urbanization will aggravate the impacts of climate change on water quantity and quality.

32 Riitters, Kurt H.; Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G. 2009. An indicator of forest dynamics using a shifting landscape mosaic. Ecological Indicators. 9: 107–117.

The composition of a landscape is a fundamental indicator in landcover pattern assessments. The objective of this paper was to evaluate a landscape composition indicator called landscape mosaic as a framework for interpreting landcover dynamics over a 9-year period in a 360,000-km2 study area in the Southern United States. The indicator classified a land parcel into 1 of 19 possible landscape mosaic classes according to the proportions of natural, developed, and agriculture landcover types in a surrounding 4.41-ha neighborhood.

33 Stanturf, J. 2009. A standdevelopment approach to oak afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 32: 120–129.

Oak afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley has involved planting 1-year-old bare-root seedlings on a relatively wide spacing in singlespecies stands or planting light-seeded species with oaks to form mixed species stands. In the former case, the developing single-species stands have limited future management options because they do not provide structures that favor quality wildlife habitat or quality sawtimber production. In the latter case, species mixtures are being planted with little knowledge of subsequent stand development, leading to an inability to predict future stand composition for management purposes. In this article, we present a system to determine bottomland tree planting mixtures that will create single-cohort mixed-species stands with a component of high-quality bottomland oak.

Forest Watershed Science

34 Chamberlain, J.L.; Mitchell, D.; Brigham, T. [and others]. 2009. Forest farming practices. In: Garrett, H.E., ed. North American agroforestry: an integrated science and practice. 2d ed. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy: 219–256.

Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally “farming the forests” for generations. Recently, however, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it through research and development. This chapter presents historical and modern perspectives, as well as examples of contemporary practices, illustrating the abundant opportunities in forest farming. Most of the discussion focuses on the Southern United States and western Canada, but the principles described could be applied to farms throughout the country.

35 Haag, Wendell R. 2009. Extreme longevity in freshwater mussels revisited: sources of bias in age estimates derived from markrecapture experiments. Freshwater Biology. 54: 1474–1486.

There may be bias associated with markrecapture experiments used to estimate age and growth of freshwater mussels. Using subsets of a mark-recapture dataset for Quadrula pustulosa, I examined how age and growth parameter estimates are affected by (1) the range and skew of the data and (2) growth reduction due to handling. I compared predictions from von Bertalanffy growth models based on mark-recapture data with direct observation of mussel age and growth inferred from validated shell rings.

36 Hales, T.C.; Ford, C.R.; Hwang, T. [and others]. 2009. Topographic and ecological controls on root reinforcement. Journal of Geophysical Research. 114, F03013, doi:10.1029/2008JF001168. 17 p.

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether geomorphically controlled variations in ecology affect the spatial distribution of root cohesion by measuring the distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of 15 native trees in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, NC. Root tensile strengths from different hardwood tree species were similar and consistently higher than the only native shrub species measured (Rhododendron maximum). Roots were stronger in trees found on noses relative to those in hollows. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface, with roots in hollows being more evenly distributed in the soil column than those on noses. Trees located on noses had higher mean root cohesion than those in hollows because of a higher root tensile force. R. maximum had the shallowest, weakest roots suggesting that recent expansion of this species due to fire suppression has likely lowered the root cohesion of some hollows.

37 Hamilton, Jim, ed. 2008. Silvopasture: establishment and management principles for pine forests in the Southeastern United States. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agroforestry Center. 72 p.

This guidebook was created for use in silvopasture training sessions and to serve as a concise field companion when planning future silvopastures. Chapters include comprehensive information on planning, common tree patterns, tree spacing and density, site preparation, and animal grazing systems. Additional resources include a step-by-step example of silvopasture establishment and management and a guide to converting existing forest to a silvopasture system.

38 Hawkins, Tracy S.; Skojac, Daniel A.; Lockhart, Brian R. [and others]. 2009. Bottomland forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley associated with the endangered Lindera melissifolia. Castanea. 74(2): 105–113.

Forest canopy and subcanopy data were collected from and compared among five disjunct bottomland hardwood forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, each with known occurrence of a population of the federally endangered shrub Lindera melissifolia. All study sites are cutover forests, underlain by hydric soils, and have a seasonal high water table. Forest composition and structure at each study site reflect hydrologic regime, topography, historical disturbance, and an absence of recent disturbance. Results of this study provide a quantitative description of bottomland forests that currently sustain L. melissifolia populations. This information may be used for development of forest management plans aimed at ensuring continued sustainability of existing L. melissifolia populations and assessing other bottomland hardwood forests for potential reintroduction of this endangered species.

39 Lockhart, Brian Roy; Gardiner, Emile S.; Leininger, Theodor D. [and others]. 2009. Linking stakeholder research needs and the Federal data quality act: a case study of an endangered forest shrub in the Southeastern United States. Forest Policy and Economics. 11: 539–547.

While the basic nature of scientific inquiry has not changed, now more than ever the credibility of scientific results is based on thorough planning, peer reviews of experimental designs and analytical approaches, and assurance that data are of the highest quality. Public interest in the quality and accuracy of Federal research rose to a level that resulted in the Data Quality Act of 2001. The act required the establishment of guidelines for Federal research organizations and cooperators. We present a case study of the U.S. Forest Service’s policies for research quality assurance and quality control, including developing quality assurance statements and plans, as applied to comprehensive research on the federally listed, endangered forest shrub pondberry (Lindera melissifolia).

40 Walker, John T.; Vose, James M.; Knoepp, Jennifer; Geron, Christopher D. 2009. Recovery of nitrogen pools and processes in degraded riparian zones in the Southern Appalachians. Journal of Environmental Quality. 38: 1391–1399.

Establishment of riparian buffers is an effective method for reducing nutrient input to streams. The objective of this 4-year study was to examine the effects of riparian zone restoration on soil nitrogen (N) cycling mechanisms in a mountain pasture previously degraded by cattle. Soil inorganic N pools, fluxes, and transformation mechanisms were compared across the following experimental treatments: (1) a restored area with vegetation regrowth; (2) a degraded riparian area with simulated effects of continued grazing by compaction, vegetation removal, and nutrient addition (+N); and (3) a degraded riparian area with simulated compaction and vegetation removal only (−N). Changes in soil nutrient cycling mechanisms following restoration of the degraded riparian zone were primarily driven by cessation of N inputs. The recovery rate, however, was influenced by the rate of vegetation regrowth.

41 Wilson, A.D.; Schiff, N.M.; Haugen, D.A.; Hoebeke, E.R. 2009. First report of Amylostereum areolatum in pines in the United States. Plant Disease. 93(1): 108.

This paper reports the first occurrence of a particular nonnative wood decay fungus (Amylostereum areolatum) in the United States. The fungus was discovered in 2005 within pines that were infested with recently introduced woodwasp larvae (Sirex noctilio) in a native pine forest in Oswego County, NY. S. noctilio is a major nonnative insect pest of pines, and has devastated pines native to the Southern United States. The woodwasp females carry A. areaolatum spores, which they inject into trees when they lay their eggs. This insect vector-wood decay fungus complex has a very high risk rating and threatens many pine species in North America, particularly in the Southern United States.


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Hiker. (U.S. Forest Service photo)
Southern Research Station headquarters in spring 2007. (Photo by Rodney Kindlund, U.S. Forest Service)