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Compass issue 13
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Compass is a quarterly publication of the USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station (SRS). As part of the Nation's largest forestry research organization -- USDA Forest Service Research and Development -- SRS serves 13 Southern States and beyond. The Station's 130 scienists work in more than 20 units located across the region at Federal laboratories, universites, and experimental forests.

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Issue 14

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Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring

1 Brandeis, Thomas J.; Woodall, Christopher W. 2008. Assessment of forest fuel loadings in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Ambio. 37(7-8): 557-562.

Quantifying the downed woody materials that comprise forest fuels has gained importance in Caribbean forests due to the increasing incidence and severity of wildfire on island ecosystems. Forest fuels were assessed at U.S. Forest Service inventory plots on Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Trends in Caribbean forest fuel loadings are dynamic and episodic, with high coarse woody debris fuel loads after hurricanes. Fine woody debris fuel loads decrease quickly and take years to reach pre-disturbance levels. Resource managers and agencies charged with fire protection will have to assess downed fuels pulses and their attendant wildfire risks to plan effectively.

2 Harper, Richard A.; McClure, Nathan D.; Johnson, Tony G. [and others]. 2009. Georgia’s forests, 2004. Resour. Bull. SRS–149. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 78 p. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists James L. Chamberlain, KaDonna C. Randolph, and Sonja N. Oswalt co-authored this publication.]

For the last 50 years, Georgia’s forest land area has remained stable, averaging 24.7 million acres, about 67 percent of the land area. Estimates show timberland area was converted to nonforest area at a rate of almost 92,000 acres per year over the last seven years. However, nonforest area was converted to timberland at a rate of about 156,000 acres per year over the same time period—mostly from agricultural land. Since the 1953 inventory, both hardwood and softwood live tree volume has reached its highest levels and increased 16.0 billion cubic feet or 78 percent. The report also discusses growth/removals/ mortality, forest disturbance, family forest ownership, forest products and the economy, nontimber forest products, best management practices, and forest health.

3 Hartsell, Andrew J.; Johnson, Tony G. 2009. Alabama’s forests, 2000. Resour. Bull. SRS–143. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 49 p.

The principal findings of the seventh forest survey of Alabama (2000) and changes that have occurred since the previous surveys are presented. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

4 Hartsell, Andrew J.; Johnson, Tony G. 2009. Alabama’s forests, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–146. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 42 p.

The principal findings of the eighth forest survey of Alabama (2005) and changes that have occurred since the previous surveys are presented. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth removals, and mortality.

5 Johnson, Tony G.; Steppleton, Carolyn D.; Bentley, James W. 2009. Southern pulpwood production, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–145. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 44 p.

Pulpmills and the production of paper and paperboard products are a major part of the forest industry in the South. In 2007, 87 pulpmills were operating and drawing wood from the 13 southern states. Pulping capacity of southern mills amounted to 125,565 tons per day, and accounted for more than 70 percent of the nation’s pulping capacity. Pulpwood production in the South is comprised of two components: wood chips from roundwood derived from forest land and wood chips from mill residue, a byproduct of sawmilling and veneer mill operations. For additional information about the Southern Pulpwood reports contact Tony John

6 Oswalt, Christopher M.; Turner, Jeffrey A. 2009. Status of hardwood forest resources in the Appalachian Region, including estimates of growth and removals. Resour. Bull. SRS-142. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 16 p.

The Appalachian Hardwood Region (AHR) is an important wood producing area of the Eastern United States and is near a large portion of the U.S. population that is growing considerably. We present results from an investigation into the forest resources of the AHR, with particular emphasis on the growth and removals of hardwood timber volume in the region. According to estimates of growth-toremovals ratios, while removals are increasing, growth continues to outpace removals at almost 2 to 1. This study provides an important assessment of the current status and recent utilization of hardwood species in the Appalachians. In addition, it provides a framework in which to continue to monitor the resources of the AHR.

7 Oswalt, Sonja N.; Johnson, Tony G.; Coulston, John W.; Oswalt, Christopher M. Mississippi’s forests, 2006. Resour. Bull. SRS–147. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 78 p.

Forest land covers 19.6 million acres in Mississippi, or about 65 percent of the land area. The majority of forests are classed as timberland. One hundred and thirty-seven tree species were measured on Mississippi forests in the 2006 inventory. Thirty-six percent of Mississippi’s forest land is classified as loblolly-shortleaf pine forest, 27 percent is classified as upland oakhickory forest, and 19 percent is composed of bottomland hardwoods. Weather-related events were the largest component of average annual disturbance (204,000 acres yearly) on Mississippi forest land since the previous inventory. About 4 percent of live trees on Mississippi’s forest land experienced some degree of damage due to Hurricane Katrina.

8 Oswalt, Sonja N.; Johnson, Tony G.; Howell, Mike; Bentley, James W. 2009. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective. Resour. Bull. SRS–148. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 30 p.

Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the southern region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals on other ownerships. Additionally, we compare the estimates generated using the Forest Inventory and Analysis inventory with data collected and reported in the NFS Timber Cut and Sold reports. Data presented in this bulletin will enable NFS managers in the southern region to take a more indepth look at amounts of logging residue left on the ground versus merchantable material leaving the forest.

9 Randolph, KaDonna; Moser, Keith W. 2009. Tree crown condition in Missouri, 2000-2003. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–113. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 11 p.

Trees with full, vigorous crowns generally are associated with higher growth rates due to their increased capacity for photosynthesis. Crown characteristics that are less than optimal may indicate one or more underlying stressors and, if severe enough, may result in tree mortality. Tree crown conditions assessed in Missouri between 2000 and 2003 were biologically reasonable given the species composition of the state. This crown condition summary was the first of its kind in Missouri and will serve as a baseline against which to compare future assessments. Upon remeasurement, calculation of changes in crown condition will indicate whether crown condition—and by extension, forest health—is stable, improving, or declining.

10 Rudis, Victor A.; Carraway, Burl; Sheffield, Raymond M. [and others]. 2008. East Texas forests, 2003. Resour. Bull. SRS–137. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 145 p. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists Sonja N. Oswalt and James L. Chamberlain coauthored this publication.]

Forest land covers 12.1 million acres in east Texas, or about 57 percent of the land area. The majority of forests, 11.9 million acres, are classed as timberland. The 2003 timberland area is the highest recorded since 1975. Forests classed as softwood forest types were found on 5.2 million acres of the timberland; almost one-half of the softwood forests are pine plantations. More than 80 tree species were recorded during the inventory. These species account for 17.2 billion cubic feet of merchantable volume. Softwood and hardwood volumes have increased since the previous inventory in 1992. During the 1992 to 2003 period, net annual growth averaged 796 million cubic feet, whereas annual removals averaged 736 million cubic feet.

11 Schiller, James R.; Hendricks, Brian. 2009. Alabama’s timber industry— an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007. Resour. Bull. SRS–151. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 33 p.

In 2007, roundwood output from Alabama’s forests totaled 1.10 billion cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers amounted to 379 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 574 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 413 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 75 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants was 144. Total receipts amounted to 1.12 billion cubic feet.

12 Woodall, C.W.; Oswalt, C.M.; Westfall, J.A. [and others]. 2009. An indicator of tree migration in forests of the Eastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 257: 1434-1444.

In a first-of-its-kind study, scientists from the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Northern and Southern Research Stations and Michigan State University have confirmed that tree species distributions are already shifting northward as a potential result of climate change. Their recent Forest Ecology and Management article compares the current geographic distributions of tree seedlings to tree biomass for species in the Eastern United States. The results of this study suggest that the process of northward tree migration in the Eastern United States is currently underway for numerous species, with rates approaching 100 km (62.1 miles) per century. The researchers also hypothesized that as northern and southern tree species together move northward due to greater regeneration success at higher latitudes, generalized species (e.g., red maple) may fill their vacated niches in southern locations.

Forest Ecosystem Restoration and Management

13 Bennett, Frances M.; Loeb, Susan C.; Bunch, Mary S.; Bowerman, William W. 2008. Use and selection of bridges as day roosts by Rafinesque’s big-eared bats. American Midland Naturalist. 160: 386-399.

Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) are a rare and sensitive species found throughout the Southeastern United States. Biologists are concerned about their conservation status due to loss of their natural roost sites, particularly large hollow trees. We surveyed >1,130 bridges across South Carolina to determine the distribution of big-eared bats in the state and determined factors associated with their use and selection of bridges. Bats were located under 73 bridges, primarily in the Coastal Plains region, and selected large, concrete, girder bridges. Both solitary individuals and maternity colonies containing >50 individuals roosted under these bridges. Thus, bridges may be an important roost structure in areas where natural roosts are limited, and bridge surveys may be an excellent method to inventory bats on a regional scale.

14 Busse, M.D.; Sanchez, F.G.; Ratcliff, A.W. [and others]. 2009. Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 41: 220–227. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists John R. Butnor and Emily A. Carter co-authored this publication.]

Sequestering carbon (C) in forest soils can benefit site fertility and help offset greenhouse gas emissions. However, identifying soil conditions and forest management practices which best promote C accumulation remains a challenging task. In this study, the effect of tilling woody slash into the soil on short-term C storage at forested sites in the Western and Southeastern United States was studied. It was hypothesized that woody residues would preferentially stimulate soil fungal biomass, resulting in improved C use efficiency and greater soil C storage. Total and active fungal biomass were not strongly affected by residue incorporation, despite the high input of organics. The findings suggest that incorporation of harvest debris has limited potential to enhance long-term soil C storage in these forests.

15 Butnor, John; Johnsen, Kurt; Samuelson, Lisa; Pruyn, Michele. 2009. Current applications of GPR in forest research. In: Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 885-894.

This publication describes a variety of applications of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) currently being used in forest research. Forests, both naturally regenerated stands and plantations, are complex, long-lived systems which can be difficult to assess and monitor over time. This is especially true of belowground biomass and internal features of trees which were previously inaccessible except by destructive sampling. GPR has been very useful to quantify belowground biomass and spatial distribution of roots, measure root diameters, and even map individual roots nondestructively. In a departure from subsurface analysis, GPR was used to detect defects and moisture gradients in stems.

16 Haywood, James D. 2009. Eight years of seasonal burning and herbicidal brush control influence sapling longleaf pine growth, understory vegetation, and the outcome of an ensuing wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management. 258: 295-305.

Five treatments were initiated in sapling longleaf pine stands: check, arborescent plant control with herbicides, and prescribed burning in March, May, or July from 1999 to 2005. In 2006, longleaf pine survival and volume were significantly less on prescribed burned plots than on checks, and herbaceous plant cover averaged 4 percent on the two unburned treatments and 42 percent on the three prescribe burned treatments. However, a wildfire in 2007 disproportionately killed pine trees while rejuvenating herbaceous plant cover on the check and herbicide plots. These results showed both the destructive and restorative effects of wildfire within longleaf pine plant communities.

17 Ludovici, Kim H.; Kress, Lance W. 2006. Decomposition and nutrient release from fresh and dried pine roots under two fertilizer regimes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 36(1): 105-111.

Root decomposition and nutrient release are typically estimated from dried root tissues; however, it is unlikely that roots dehydrate prior to decomposing. This study monitored mass loss and nutrient concentrations of dried and fresh roots of two size classes (<2 and 2-5 mm) over a 12-month period in fertilized and control plots in a 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. Nutrient content was calculated and used to assess the effects of fertilization, root size, and initial condition (hydration) on nutrient release rates. Results indicate that using dried root tissues will overestimate fine root decomposition and nutrient cycling rates.

18 Selgrade, James F.; Bostic, Jordan West; Roberds, James H. 2009. Dynamical behaviour of a discrete selectionmigration model with arbitrary dominance. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications. 15(4): 371- 385.

To study the effects of immigration of genes (possibly transgenic) into a natural population, a one-island selectionmigration model with density-dependent regulation is used to track allele frequency and population size. The existence and uniqueness of a polymorphic genetic equilibrium is proved under a general assumption about dominance in fitnesses. Also, conditions are found which guarantee the existence of and determine the location of the global attractor for this model. The rate at which solutions approach the attractor is approximated. A measure of allelic diversity is introduced.

Forest Values, Uses, and Policies

19 Ashton, Sarah F.; Hubbard, William G.; Rauscher, H. Michael, eds. 2009. A southern region conference on technology transfer and extension. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–116. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 237 p.

Forest landowners and managers have different education and technology transfer needs and preferences. To be effective, it is important to use a multi-faceted science delivery/technology transfer program to reach them. Multi-faceted science delivery programs can provide similar content over a wide range of mechanisms, including printed publications, face-toface workshops and training sessions, satellite-based and pod casting-based distributed learning courses, and a wide range of Internet-based products. Several opportunities exist to share theories, products, activities, successes and failures across the science delivery, Extension, and education communities. As a collection, these papers describe the state of activities and thinking in Southern United States natural resource science delivery and technology transfer.

20 Clark, Alexander III; Daniels, Richard F.; Miller, James H. 2006. Effect of controlling herbaceous and woody competing vegetation on wood quality of planted loblolly pine. Forest Products Journal. 56(2): 40-46.

Southern pine plantations are increasingly established using herbicides to control herbaceous and/or woody competing vegetation to enhance growth, but little is known about the effect on wood quality. A study established at 13 southern locations in 1984 examined effects of complete control of woody, herbaceous, and woody plus herbaceous competition for the first 3 to 5 years on the growth and stand dynamics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations. After 15 years, herbaceous plus woody control increased pine merchantable volume per acre by an average of 23 to 121 percent compared to no competition control. The authors report on growth results and effects on ring specific gravity for the various study treatments.

21 Johnson, Cassandra Y.; Zipperer, Wayne C. 2007. Culture, place, and urban growth in the U.S. South. Urban Ecosystems. 10 [Number unknown]: 459- 474.

People’s connection to land is an important contributor to identity in traditional southern society. In small southern communities, to know where someone lives is to know who someone is because place assigns biography. Studies have investigated the physical and economic implication of landscape change in the South, but comparatively little research focuses on the impacts to culture of urban growth. We consider how sense of place (as an indicator of culture) may be impacted, over time, by physical and structural changes in a locale. This point of departure examines the temporal dimension of sense of place, or how place perceptions may vary as familiar places and practices are altered by landscape moderations. We review the literature on sense of place and changing southern landscapes and also offer a conceptual framework for analyzing sense of place over the long term.

22 Lim, Siew Hoon; Bowker, J.M.; Johnson, Cassandra Y.; Cordell, H. Ken. 2009. Perspectives on prescribed fire in the South: does ethnicity matter? Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 33(1): 17-24.

Using a household survey and regression methods, we assessed preferences for prescribed fire in the Southern United States. We found that the majority of the respondents favored the use of prescribed fire. However, we observed pronounced racial variation in opinions on prescribed fire and its side effects. African-Americans and Hispanics were less supportive and were more concerned about the side effects of prescribed fire than whites. We also observed that females tended to be more concerned about the side effects of prescribed fire than males. In addition, education had no effect on preference for prescribed fire in general, but education was found to be negatively associated with concern levels in all three models pertaining to concerns over the side effects of prescribed fire. Concern over the side effects diminished as education increased.

23 Perkins, Brian; Smith, Bob; Araman, Philip. 2008. Analyzing the feasibility of utilizing small diameter hardwood timber for solid wood products and residues. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS- 111. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 6 p.

The eastern hardwood forest contains small diameter timber that is often of lower quality and lower value than larger sawtimber. This small diameter hardwood timber has traditionally been utilized for pulpwood, but it can also be used for lumber and residue production. In order to increase the utilization of this resource by sawmills, a number of analyses need to be conducted. These analyses include a resource analysis, a yield analysis, an economic analysis, and finally a market analysis. This report gives detailed instructions for conducting each of these analyses. The successful completion of these analyses will help hardwood lumber companies determine if using small diameter hardwood timber is a good decision for their company.

24 Poudyal, Neelam C.; Hodges, Donald G.; Bowker, J.M.; Cordell, H.K. 2009. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function. Forest Policy and Economics. 11(4): 253-259.

Findings from this study imply that communities rich in natural amenities like a high proportion of land in open spaces including forests, farmland, rangeland, and water bodies, and mild climate, longer sunlight hours during winter, and cooler year around temperature can offer higher life expectancy than those without. Moreover, immediate access to state parks, outdoor recreation facilities, and Federal wilderness parks can also positively influence resident life expectancy. While public health approaches have historically focused on controlling diseases and treating patients, this study suggests that more comprehensive public health policies which increase public investment in environmental conservation, preserve and utilize natural resources, and promote civic engagement in environmental activities may be in order.

25 Prestemon, Jeffrey P. 2009. Statistical power of intervention analyses: simulation and empirical application to treated lumber prices. Forest Science. 55(1): 48-63.

Timber product markets are sometimes affected by large natural or policy shocks, such as hurricanes and regulation changes. These large shocks can lead to changes in prices, production, timber inventories, producers, and ultimately consumers. Statistical approaches—univariate and multivariate methods—vary in their ability to detect shocks. This study evaluated two statistical approaches to detecting shocks, quantifying their statistical power, and used them to evaluate the change from chromated copper arsenate to mainly alkaline copper quaternary treatment of southern pine lumber in 2004. The study found that the bivariate statistical methods were more powerful at detecting shocks generally and specifically for a rise in treated southern pine prices by just over 11 percent as a result of the chemical treatment change in 2004.

26 Siegel, William C.; Haney, Harry L.; Greene, John L. 2009. Estate planning for forest landowners: what will become of your timberland? Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-112. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 180 p.

This book provides guidelines on the use of estate planning tools and techniques with a particular focus on forest properties. The first section describes the practical purposes for estate planning and its legal foundations. The second section explains and illustrates the use of general estate planning tools, including gifts, bequests, the marital deduction, trusts, and insurance. The third section explains and illustrates the use of tools that are especially useful with forest estates, such as special use valuation and the exclusion for land subject to a conservation easement. The fourth section describes forms of forest ownership and the basic features of state gift, inheritance, and estate taxes. It also includes an example of the benefit of planning—or the cost of not planning—a forest estate.

27 Wear, D.N.; Greis, J.G.; Walters, N. 2009. The Southern Forest Futures Project: using public input to define the issues. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-115. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 17 p.

The Southern Forest Futures Project will evaluate potential futures for the forests in the U.S. South. We started with a scoping of issues, using public meetings in 14 locations and three Webinars. We gathered > 2,200 comments and processed the data to define a comprehensive view of how forces of change may reshape forests, and the effects on the benefits of forest ecosystems. We identified a set of meta-issues that warrant indepth analysis: bioenergy, climate change, forest ownership change, invasive species, fire, taxes, and water. The input from these meetings will be used to organize subsequent stages of the project.

Threats to Forest Health

28 Achtemeier, Gary L. 2008. On the formation and persistence of superfog in woodland smoke. Meteorological Applications. 16(2): 215-225.

Dense fogs reducing visibility to less than 3 m (10 feet)—defined as superfog—have been associated with extreme visibility reductions over roadways. Superfog can form when two moist airmasses of widely different temperatures are mixed. This condition is best satisfied late at night or early morning when temperatures reach daily lows and when relative humidities are highest. When superfog events occur, multiple-vehicle pileups with injuries and fatalities often result. In the Southern United States, superfog events can be associated with smoldering from prescribed burns and wildfires—usually during the winter/spring burning season. Issues of conscience and threat of litigation make understanding how superfog forms critical to the continued widespread use of fire as a land management tool. Therefore, research seeks to increase understanding of the conditions that permit superfog to form.

29 Bishir, John; Roberds, James; Strom, Brian; Wan, Xiaohai. 2009. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the joint population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-114. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 83 p.

SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB) (Dendroctonus frontalis), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting until harvest. It mimics day-to-day changes in SPB populations, and the associated tree mortality caused by these bark beetles. In addition, it provides yearly updates of tree mortality due to competition and of growth for the surviving trees. Chiefly, the model and its simulation codes are designed to function as research tools for investigating the influence of stand properties on SPB activities, and of the reciprocal impact of beetles on tree mortality.

30 Cram, Michelle M.; Fraedrich, Stephen W. 2007. Detection and management of stunt and stubby-root nematodes in a southern forest nursery. In: Riley, L.E.; Dumroese, R.K.; Landis, T.D., tech coords.

National proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Association, 2006. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Station: 91-96. Reductions in pine seedling growth and quality are frequently noted in southern forest nurseries during the second year of production following fumigation. A yearlong survey of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) fields in one nursery discovered that the stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) increased significantly following fumigation to levels that could impact seedling growth and cause stunting. The stubby root nematode (Paratrichodorus minor), which can also damage pine seedlings, was also found in these fields. The nursery had been alternating sorghum and grain rye cover crops with pine seedling production, and we subsequently found all of these species were excellent hosts for the stunt and stubby-root nematodes. In host range tests, population densities of the stubby-root and stunt nematodes declined with fallow or in fields where pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) was used as a cover crop.

31 Goodrick, Scott L.; Hanley, Deborah E. 2009. Florida wildfire activity and atmospheric teleconnections. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 18(4): 476-482.

Since 1991, the Florida Division of Forestry has been making seasonal fire severity forecasts based on a relationship between area burned in Florida and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study extends the original analysis on which these forecasts area based and attempts to augment it with the addition of other patterns of climate variability. Two atmospheric teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation and Pacific–North American pattern (PNA), are examined as potential indicators of seasonal and monthly area burned in Florida. Although ENSO was the only climate index to show a significant correlation to area burned in Florida, the PNA is shown to be a factor in influencing fire season severity, although the relationship is not monotonic and, therefore, not revealed by correlation analysis.

32 Guo, Qinferg. 2009. Interactive effects of diversity and biomass on productivity: insights from succession. In: Wu, J.; Yang, J., eds. Lectures in modern ecology (IV): theory and applications. Beijing: Higher Education Press and Springer: 58-73.

Do commonly observed spatial relationships also exist over time? As an attempt to answer this question, this study examines whether the frequently observed diversity-biomass-productivityrelationships over space can also be seen over time. Syntheses of long-term data and literature show that when the full successional cycles are examined, diversity and productivity are usually positively related to each other but unimodally related to biomass. These relations are consistent with frequently observed patterns over space, and the same underlying mechanisms might apply to both spatial and temporal patterns. The results shed new light on restoration ecology and ecosystem management.

33 Hanula, James L.; Sullivan, Brian. 2008. Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), the vector of laurel wilt. Environmental Entomology. 37(6): 1403-1409.

Redbay ambrosia beetle is a native of Southeast Asia recently introduced into coastal forests of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. It carries a fungus causing a lethal wilt disease in redbay trees that can also kill sassafras. No practical monitoring system existed for this beetle, so we conducted studies to identify attractants produced by redbay trees that could be used as lures in traps. We tested several compounds individually. Those chemicals were available in crude extracts of manuka plants from New Zealand and a tree species in the genus Phoebe from Brazil. Manuka and phoebe extracts were as attractive as redbay wood to redbay ambrosia beetle. Manuka oil is readily available and is a good alternative to redbay wood as trap baits for monitoring redbay ambrosia beetle distribution and population trends. In addition, the availability of these new artificial lures suggests several unique ways they can be used to help control redbay ambrosia beetle.

34 Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael D. 2009. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest. Journal of Insect Conservation. 13 [Number unknown]: 119-123.

Riparian forests are dynamic systems that connect terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The transition zone created by these forests generates a patchwork of microhabitats which influences local biodiversity. Sand and gravel bars are examples of these transitional habitats which occur along rivers and streams worldwide. We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles along a small woodland stream in the Georgia Piedmont and in the adjacent forest to determine the importance of these habitats to resident ground beetle populations. We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. In the future, these beetles can be used as bioindicators, allowing researchers and managers to detect change to local streamside environments. This study demonstrates that many unique species can be found in specialized microhabitats and emphasizes the need for biodiversity assessment surveys to include a wide range of habitats.

35 Klepzig, K.D.; Adams, A.S.; Handelsman, J.; Raffa, K.F. 2009. Symbioses: a key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans. Environmental Entomology. 38(1): 67-77.

In a symbiosis, organisms live together in close interaction. Sometimes both of the partners benefit from one another, sometimes only one does. Insects exist in symbiosis with a variety of fungi and bacteria. From their partners, insects may receive nutrition, improved reproduction, even protection from natural enemies. The microorganisms may receive transport and protection from the environment. These strong, ancient alliances can also have important effects on human wellbeing, affecting agriculture, human health, natural resources, and the impacts of invasive species. The authors explore symbiotic relations involving bark beetles as examples of the impacts of symbioses, and highlight new discoveries.

36 McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Sun, G.; Nosal, M. 2007. Interactive effects of ozone and climate on water use, soil moisture content, and streamflow in a Southern Appalachian forest in the USA. New Phytologist. 174 [Number unknown]: 125-136.

This study measured tree water use, soil moisture, and streamflow in three forested watersheds in east Tennessee. We found that an increase in ambient ozone level significantly correlated to elevated wholetree canopy conductance, depletion of soil moisture, and reduction of late-season streamflow. This study suggests that current ambient ozone exposures may exacerbate the frequency and level of negative effects of drought on forest growth and stream health. Documentation of the degree and direction of effects of ozone on forest water loss is critically needed to model ozone effects on forest water use and growth in a warmer future climate.

37 Miller, Daniel R.; Rabaglia, Robert J. 2009. Ethanol and (–)-α-pinene: attractant kairomones for bark and ambrosia beetles in Southeastern U.S. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 35(4): 435- 448.

In 2002–2004, we examined the responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles to funnel traps baited with ethanol and/or (–)-α-pinene in Southeastern United States. We found that traps baited with ethanol were attractive to 10 species of ambrosia and two species of bark beetles. Traps baited with (–)-α-pinene were attractive to five bark beetles. In some locations, ethanol enhanced responses of some bark beetle species to traps baited with (–)-α-pinene, whereas (–)-α-pinene interrupted attraction of some ambrosia beetle species to traps baited with ethanol. Of 23 species of ambrosia beetles captured in our field trials, nine were exotic and accounted for 70 to 97 percent of total catches of ambrosia beetles.

38 Mulrooney, J.E.; Gerard, P.D. 2007. Toxicity of fipronil in Mississippi soil types against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Sociobiology. 50(1): 63-70.

Three soils (a silt loam, loamy sand, and sandy loam) found in Mississippi and pure silica sand were treated with fipronil and bioassayed using eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes. Soils were treated with aqueous solutions of Termidor (fipronil) at concentrations of 0, 0.12, 0.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 20.0 ppm (wt AI:wt soil) that brought the soils to 15 percent moisture. Estimated lethal concentrations (ppm) required to kill 50 percent of termite workers within 96 hours after placement on the soils were 0.49 (sand loam), 0.70 (sand), 4.21 (loamy sand), and 6.99 (silt loam). Termite mortality decreased with increases in organic matter content of the soils treated with fipronil.

39 Mulrooney, J.E.; Gerard, P.D. 2009. Tunneling and activity of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) exposed to low concentrations of nonrepellent termiticides. Sociobiology. 53(3): 695-706.

This paper examines termite tunneling through sand treated with one of three delayed action non-repellent termiticides: chlorfenapyr, fipronil, or imidacloprid. Once termites passed the treated sand, measurements of termite tunneling in untreated sand were collected. None of the termiticides prevented tunneling entirely, and none were able to kill more than 60 percent of the termites. However both fipronil and imidacloprid did have significantly less total tunneling distance than either chlorfenapyr or water only controls (which performed similarly). Only exposure to fipronil resulted in significantly greater termite mortality than the controls. These data indicate that although popular, these termiticides do not completely prevent termite movement past treated areas.

40 Mulrooney, J.E.; Hasse, R.D.; Wagner, T.L.; Gerard, P.D. 2007. Activity of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) exposed to nestmates treated with slow-acting nonrepellent termiticides. Sociobiology. 50(1): 71-86.

Delayed action non-repellent (DANR) termiticides work slowly, killing off termites that visit treated soil. Previous laboratory studies have indicated that DANRexposed termites can poison untreated nestmates through “termiticide transfer.” In this paper, a prototype sound detection device was used to study transfer of two commonly sold DANR termiticides (fipronil and imidacloprid) at 50 ppm. Only fipronil was significantly different in terms of termite activity, mortality (which did not reach 100 percent), and wood consumption from water-only controls over two weeks. These results indicate that transfer may be unreliable for termite control.

41 Peterson, Chris; Wagner, Terence L.; Mulrooney, Joseph E.; Shelton, Thomas G. 2006. Subterranean termites—their prevention and control in buildings. Home and Garden Bulletin 64. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 32 p.

Structural damage repair and control costs associated with subterranean termites are estimated to exceed $1.5 billion annually in the United States. Protection measures to prevent termite damage are required in the building codes of many states. This booklet provides homeowners with background information on the biology and control of subterranean termites. Treatment strategies for termite control are discussed, including both pre-construction and remedial applications. The booklet details some of the good building practices which make buildings less “termite friendly.” It includes basic termite biology, such as how to distinguish termites from ants, illustrations of damage, tunneling, and U.S. distributions.

42 Riitters, Kurt; Vogt, Peter; Soille, Pierre; Estreguil, Christine. 2009. Landscape patterns from mathematical morphology on maps with contagion. Landscape Ecology. 24(5): 699-709.

The perceived realism of simulated maps with contagion (spatial autocorrelation) has led to their use for comparing landscape pattern metrics and as habitat maps for modeling organism movement across landscapes. Many such studies have indicated “threshold-like” ecological responses which are said to be the result of sudden shifts in landscape patterns as the proportion of habitat is raised or lowered on a landscape. The objective of this study was to confirm sudden shifts in landscape patterns on maps with contagion using new types of pattern metrics which are known to be extremely sensitive to them. There was no evidence of sudden shifts of landscape patterns on maps with contagion, implying that any “thresholdlike” ecological responses observed in other studies are not caused by sudden shifts in landscape patterns on such maps.

43 Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L. 2009. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forests of the Southeastern United States. Florida Entomologist. 92(1): 163-164.

We collected leaf litter samples adjacent (= 15 cm) to and away (> 2 m) from logs at three stages of decay to determine how arthropod abundance varies with proximity to coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forests. Arthropods overall and several individual taxa (i.e., Araneae, Coleoptera, Psocoptera and holometabolous insect larvae) were significantly more abundant near logs than away from them. None of the taxa was more abundant away from logs, and there were no differences in abundance among decay classes. These results suggest that dead wood strongly affects the spatial distribution patterns of litter-dwelling arthropods in southeastern forests.

44 Wade, Timothy G.; Wickham, James D.; Zacarelli, Nicola; Riitters, Kurt H. 2009. A multi-scale method of mapping urban influence. Environmental Modelling & Software. 24(10): 1252-1256.

Urban development can impact environmental quality and ecosystem services well beyond urban extent. Many methods to map urban areas have been developed and used in the past, but most have simply tried to map existing extent of urban development, and all have been single-scale techniques. The method presented here uses a clustering approach to look beyond the extant urban area at multiple scales. The result is a single, synoptic multi-scale map of urban influence that should be useful in urban, regional, and environmental planning efforts.

45 Zhou, Guoyi; Sun, Ge; Wang, Xu. [and others]. 2008. Estimating forest ecosystem evapotranspiration at multiple temporal scales with a dimension analysis approach. Journal of American Water Resources Association. 44(1): 208-221. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists Steven G. McNulty, James M. Vose, and Devendra M. Amatya co-authored this publication.]

Over 60 percent of precipitation returns back to the atmosphere and is not available for human use. Accurately quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) is critical to evaluating the effects of land management and global change on water availability, streamflow, nutrient and sediment loading, and ecosystem productivity. The developed ET model was tested with longterm hydro-meteorological data from five research sites in the Southeastern United States and China. Averaged simulation errors for annual ET were within 7.0 percent of measured values. The climatedriven model is sensitive to land surface characteristic parameters and thus has potential to be applied to examine the compounding hydrologic responses to landforms and climate changes at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

Forest Watershed Science

46 Adams, Susan B. 2009. A selection of the crayfishes of Mississippi. [Poster]. Memphis, TN: Graphics Systems, Inc.

Crayfishes, also known as crawfish, mudbugs, and crawdads, are related to shrimps, lobsters, and crabs. The Southeastern United States has the highest crayfish diversity in the world. Mississippi has about 63 named crayfish species and others that are still unnamed. Seventeen species live only in Mississippi. Crayfishes live in a wide variety of habitats, including lakes, rivers, streams, springs, seasonally wet habitats such as roadside ditches, and even relatively dry savannahs and lawns. Nearly all crayfishes will burrow during adverse conditions such as drought, but some species spend nearly all of their lives in complex burrows. In addition to being a popular food for people, crayfishes play diverse and important ecological roles in the various habitats they occupy.

47 Amatya, Devendra M.; Skaggs, Wayne R.; Trettin, Carl C. 2009. Advancing the science of forest hydrology: a challenge to agricultural and biological engineers. Resource. 16(5): 10-11.

Forests are an integral component of the landscape, and maintaining their functional integrity is fundamental to ecosystem sustainability. Tools and practices analogous to those developed to improve agricultural production and quantify environmental impacts are needed to ensure the entirety of ecosystem goods and services. Agricultural and biological engineering involves the requisite disciplines to address issues associated with the sustainability of contemporary landscapes, extending well beyond the boundary of agricultural lands. The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers can play an important role in advancing the science of forest hydrology by strengthening collaborations of its professionals with forest scientists.

48 Barnhart, Christopher M.; Haag, Wendell R.; Roston, William N. 2008. Adaptations to host infection and larval parasitism in Unionoida. Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 27(2): 370-394.

This paper reviews adaptations of freshwater mussels for infecting and parasitizing their fish hosts. Mussel larvae must undergo a brief period as parasites on the gills or fins of fishes. Some mussel species are generalists that parasitize a wide range of fishes, while others are specialists, able to parasitize only a few, closely related fish species. Host specificity is a critical feature of the evolutionary diversification and conservation biology of mussels, and the host relationship is important in dispersal of otherwise sedentary mussels. Infection strategies exploit predator-prey relationships by mimicking food items of host fishes. The intricate relationships between mussels and fishes are easily disrupted, contributing to the imperilment of many mussel species.

49 Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Moorman, Christopher E. 2009. Food abundance does not determine bird use of early-successional habitat. Ecology. 90(6): 1586-1594.

Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which variation in food availability influences habitat use by birds. We investigated the role of food in determining habitat use by birds in forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The response by birds to experimentally manipulated arthropod abundance was limited and inconsistent. We conclude that arthropod abundance did not control whether forest birds used our gaps. The abundance of food resources may not be as important in determining bird habitat selection as previous research has indicated, at least for forest birds in temperate subtropical regions.

50 Coleman, Mark. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of root distribution in developing stands of four woody crop species grown with drip irrigation and fertilization. Plant and Soil. 299: 195-213.

Belowground production is a poorly understood component of forest ecosystems because of difficulties in accessing and measuring roots. This study uses managed forest plantations as model forest to simplify the study of belowground production. Numerous factors are considered, including four different tree species, nutrient and water availability, soil depth, stand development, and spatial distribution difference caused by drip irrigation treatments. Stand age, depth, and driptubes had predominant effects. Subtle differences between species, nutrient availability, and soil moisture could not be identified until other predominant factors were defined. Hardwoods produce greater root length than pine, and nutrient availability stimulated root growth. This information will enhance understanding of root responses to environmental change.

51 Hawkins, Tracy S.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 2005. Life cycles and biomass allocation in seed- and ramet-derived plants of Cryptotaenia canadensis (Apiaceae), a monocarpic species of Eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 83 [Number unknown]: 518-528.

Life cycles, survivorship, and biomass allocation for seed- and ramet-derived plants of Cryptotaenia canadensis were studied. Seedlings emerged in spring and behaved as biennials, reproducing both sexually and asexually in the second growing season. Ramets emerged in late summer and reproduced sexually and asexually annually. Seed-derived plants had higher percent survival and lower flowering percentage than ramet-derived plants, but fewer seed-derived plants flowered than did ramet-derived plants. During reproduction, biomass allocation did not differ between ramet- and seedderived plants. Equivalent reproductive output combined with differences in plant derivation life cycles optimize this species’ ability to persist in its natural habitat.

52 Hawkins, Tracy S.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Leininger, Theodor D. [and others]. 2009. Growth and intraspecific competitive abilities of the dioecious Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) in varied flooding regimes. Journal of Torrey Botanical Society. 136: 91–101. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists Emile S. Gardiner, Margaret S. Devall, Paul B. Hamel, A. Dan Wilson, and Kirstina F. Connor co-authored this publication.]

The contribution of growth characteristics and competitive abilities of male and female pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) to male-biased colony ratios observed in field populations was investigated. In three flooding treatments (no-flooding, 30-day-flooding, and 60-day-flooding) and in varying planting densities, males and females competed equally well. In both sexes, stem growth ceased and leaves were lost in response to flooding. However, growth characteristics of male pondberry grown alone suggested greater potential for competing with other plant species. Therefore, male pondberry may colonize suitable habitat more easily than female pondberry, which could indirectly contribute to male-biased colony ratios in field populations.

53 Kilgo, John C. 2009. Coyotes in the East: are they impacting deer? Forest Landowner. 68(2): 5-8.

Many hunters and landowners in the Eastern United States have expressed concern over whether recently established coyote populations might be affecting deer and other wildlife. Biologists in the region have not considered coyotes as a management problem, but recent research indicates that predation by coyotes may be more of a concern than previously thought. Much of this work has been conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site in western South Carolina. Researchers first studied coyote population size, movements, habitat use, food habits, and survival and mortality. This work later led to more direct assessments of their impact on the deer population. This article presents information from the Savannah River Site and elsewhere on this emerging and potentially important issue in wildlife management.

54 Lockhart, Brian Roy; Gardiner, Emile S.; Hodges, John D.; Ezell, Andrew W. 2008. Carbon allocation and morphology of cherrybark oak seedlings and sprouts under three light regimes. Annals of Forest Science. 65(8): 801p1–p8.

Carbon allocation and morphology were compared between cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda) seedlings and sprouts at 1-Lag grown in full, 47 percent, and 20 percent sunlight. Results indicated that cherrybark oak seedling carbon allocation and morphology responded plastically to light availability. In full light, roots were sinks for 14C, while shoots were sinks for 14C under reduced light availability. Cherrybark oak sprouts exhibited similar carbon allocation patterns in response to light availability, but displayed stronger shoot sinks than seedlings when grown under reduced light availability. We also showed that young oak sprout roots are a sink for 14C-photosynthates. Results from this study point to the need for a morphological index for oak sprout development so more precise comparisons in sprout development and physiology can be made with seedlings.

55 Nuckolls, April E.; Wurzburger, Nina; Ford, Chelcy R. [and others]. 2009. Hemlock declines rapidly with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation: impacts on the carbon cycle of Southern Appalachian forests. Ecosystems. 12(2): 179-190. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientist J.M. Vose co-authored this publication.]

Eastern hemlock, an important streamside and cove species in Southern Appalachian forests, is facing widespread mortality from hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), an exotic invasive insect. We studied hemlock decline induced by either girdling or HWA infestation and quantified the concurrent changes to the carbon cycle in a mixed stand of hemlock and hardwoods. Hemlock tree growth declined substantially in response to girdling and infestation compared to reference hardwoods in three years. Following girdling and infestation, very fine root biomass declined by 20 to 40 percent in two years, and soil and root respiration declined by about 20 percent in one year. Our results suggest that hemlock is declining more rapidly from HWA infestation in the Southeast than in the Northeast, and that hemlock decline from HWA has a rapid effect on the carbon cycle.

56 Safdari, Vahidreza; Devall, Margaret S. 2009. Elementary software for the hand lens identification of some common Iranian woods. IAWA Journal. 30(1): 81- 86.

The computer program “Hyrcania” has been developed for identifying some common woods (26 hardwoods and 6 softwoods) from the Hyrcanian forest type of Iran. The program has been written in JavaScript and is usable with computers as well as mobile phones. The databases use anatomical characteristics (visible with a hand lens) and wood color, and can be searched in English or Persian. Descriptions and images can be retrieved by their scientific names.

57 Schoeneberger, M.M. 2008. Agroforestry: working trees for sequestering carbon on agricultural lands. Agroforestry Systems. 75 [Number unknown]: 27-37.

Agroforestry, which integrates woody plants into agricultural production systems, can sequester significant amounts of new carbon while leaving the bulk of the land in agricultural production. Simultaneously, it can help landowners and society address many other issues facing these lands, such as bioenergy, biodiversity, and water quality. Agroforestry research, like that conducted at the National Agroforestry Center, is establishing the scientific foundation needed for building carbon accounting and modeling tools. Incorporation of agroforestry into the agricultural “toolbox” will enable comparison of different farm management scenarios, thereby improving the development of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies on these lands.

58 Trettin, C.C; Laiho, R.; Minkkinen, K.; Laine, J. 2005. Influence of climate change factors on carbon dynamics in northern forested peatlands. Canadian Journal Of Soil Science. 86 [Number unknown]: 269-280.

Peatlands are carbon-accumulating wetland ecosystems, developed through an imbalance among organic matter production and decomposition processes. Soil saturation is the principal cause of anoxic conditions that constrain organic matter decay. Accordingly, changes in the hydrologic regime will affect the carbon (C) dynamics in forested peatlands. Our objective is to review ecological studies and experiments on managed peatlands that provide a basis for assessing the effects of an altered hydrology on C dynamics. We conclude that climate change influences will be mediated primarily through the hydrologic cycle. A lower water table resulting from altered precipitation patterns and increased atmospheric temperature may be expected to decrease soil CH4 and increase C02 emissions from the peat surface. Correspondingly, the C balance in forested peatlands is also sensitive to management and restoration prescriptions. Increases in soil C02 efflux do not necessarily equate with net losses from the soil C pool. While the fundamentals of the C balance in peatlands are well-established, the combined affects of global change stressors and management practices are best considered using process-based biogeochemical models. Long-term studies are needed both for validation and to provide a framework for longitudinal assessments of the peatland C cycle.

59 Warren, Melvin L.; Sheldon, Andrew L.; Haag, Wendell R. 2009. Constructed wood micohabitat bundles for sampling fishes and crayfishes in Coastal Plain streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 29(2): 330-342.

Small woody material (e.g., stems, leaves) and fine roots of riparian trees contribute to structure and diversity of stream habitats. Woody material is especially important in Coastal Plain streams where sand dominates the stream bottom. In these habitats, woody material is the major source of fish cover and the primary substrate for production of fish food organisms. We investigated fish and crayfish use of constructed woody microhabitats (cane, leaf, and string bundles) in northern Mississippi streams in winter and spring. Two streams were channelized and had little woody cover; a third was unchannelized and not incised and had abundant woody cover. Occupancy of bundles by fish and crayfish was high and included 32 fish species representing 8 families. Fish and crayfish use of bundles was much higher in the channelized streams than in the unchannelized stream. Interestingly, after a cold winter storm fish use increased in channelized streams but not in the unchannelized stream, suggesting fishes are limited in channelized streams by lack of woody cover.

60 Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela. 2009. Applications and advances in electronic-nose technologies. Sensors. 9 [Number unknown]: 5099-5148.

Electronic-nose devices (e-noses) are innovative instruments that have received considerable attention the past 20 years. E-noses are engineered with sensors designed to electronically mimic the mammalian olfactory system (sense of smell) in order to identify, classify, discriminate, and characterize simple to complex vapor (gas) mixtures containing different types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These devices are different from traditional instruments used in analytical chemistry in that they are capable of recognizing complex vapors without having to separate or identify individual components within the sample mixture. This article provides a comprehensive review and description of the many and varied types and applications of e-noses in diverse industrial and scientific fields, particularly those that have been of greatest benefit to man.


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Hiker. (U.S. Forest Service photo)
Southern Research Station headquarters in spring 2007. (Photo by Rodney Kindlund, U.S. Forest Service)