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Compass issue 12
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Compass is a quarterly publication of the USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station (SRS). As part of the Nation's largest forestry research organization -- USDA Forest Service Research and Development -- SRS serves 13 Southern States and beyond. The Station's 130 scienists work in more than 20 units located across the region at Federal laboratories, universites, and experimental forests.

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Issue 12

New Products

Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring

1 Bentley, James W.; Cartwright, Walter E.; Hendricks, Brian. 2008. Alabama’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–128. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 32 p.

In 2005, roundwood output from Alabama’s forests totaled 1.14 billion cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers amounted to 432 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 563 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 425 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 93 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants was 145. Total receipts amounted to 1.18 billion cubic feet.

2 Bentley, James W.; Howell, Michael; Johnson, Tony G. 2008. Arkansas’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–132. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 31 p.

In 2005, roundwood output from Arkansas’s forests totaled 749 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 354 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 390 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 235 million cubic feet; and veneer logs were third at 95 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants was 156 in 2005. Receipts for those mills totaled 814 million cubic feet.

3 Bentley, James W.; Howell, Michael; Johnson, Tony G. 2008. Louisiana’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–130. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 32 p.

In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Louisiana’s forests totaled 866 million cubic feet, 20 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 17 percent to 321 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 343 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 337 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 146 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants increased from 60 in 2002 to 62 in 2005. Total receipts increased 18 percent to 936 million cubic feet.

4 Bentley, James W.; Howell, Michael; Johnson, Tony G. 2008. Mississippi’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–131. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 32 p.

In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi’s forests totaled 1.03 billion cubic feet, 11 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 1 percent to 385 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 366 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 78 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants remained at 116 in 2005. Total receipts increased 2 percent to 908 million cubic feet.

5 Johnson, Tony G.; Bentley, James W.; Howell, Michael. 2008. Florida’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–133. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 31 p.

In 2005, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida’s forests totaled 445 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 146 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 214 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 167 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 26 million cubic feet. Total receipts declined 5 percent to 460 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants totaled 93 in 2005.

6 Johnson, Tony G.; Bentley, James W.; Howell, Michael. 2008. The South’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005. Resour. Bull. SRS–135. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 52 p.

In 2005, industrial roundwood output from the South’s forests totaled 8.7 billion cubic feet, 6 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 3.2 billion cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 3.9 billion cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 3.5 billion cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 846 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 2,281 in 2003 to 2,028 in 2005. Total receipts increased 5 percent to 8.7 billion cubic feet.

7 Johnson, Tony G.; Steppleton, Carolyn D. 2008. Southern pulpwood production, 2006. Resour. Bull. SRS–134. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 42 p.

The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.0 million cords in 2005 to 64.7 million cords in 2006. Roundwood production increased 123,300 cords to 46.3 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased 3 percent to 18.3 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.5 million cords. In 2006, 87 mills were operating and drawing wood from the 13 Southern States. Pulping capacity of southern mills increased from 124,567 tons per day in 2005 to 125,093 tons per day, and still accounts for more than 70 percent of the Nation’s pulping capacity.

8 Oswalt, Sonja N.; Oswalt, Christopher; Turner, Jeffrey. 2008. Hurricane Katrina impacts on Mississippi forests. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 32(3): 139-141.

Hurricane Katrina triggered public interest and concern for forests in Mississippi that required rapid responses from the scientific community. A uniform systematic sample of 3,590 ground plots were established and measured in 687 days immediately after the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast. The hurricane damaged an estimated 521 million trees with more than 2.5-cm d.b.h. and killed approximately 54 million trees statewide. Sixty-nine percent of tree mortality occurred in 17 counties in southeastern Mississippi, and 45 percent of trees killed were loblolly pine trees. Total tree mortality was less than 1 percent of the statewide population.

9 Roesch, Francis A. 2008. An alternative view of continuous forest inventories. Forest Science. 54(4): 455-464.

In this publication, continuous forest inventories are conceptualized as being a sample drawn from a population in three dimensions: two dimensions in land area and the third in time. The sample units result from carving the three-dimensional volume into pieces like a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Forest inventory is often described as a random sample drawn from the land area; however, the third dimension becomes necessary when the time of observation is also random. As with two-dimensional sampling, this threedimensional concept results in a finite number of sample units, each of which is selected independently with a known probability, allowing the formulation of unbiased estimators.

10 Rose, Anita K. 2007. Virginia’s forests, 2001. Resour. Bull. SRS–120. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 140 p.

Between 1997 and 2001, the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program conducted the seventh inventory of the forests of Virginia. About 15,844,000 acres, or 62 percent, of Virginia was forested. Red maple and loblolly pine dominated in terms of number of live stems (1.5 billion and .96 billion, respectively). Yellow-poplar dominated the live-tree volume with 5.5 billion cubic feet. Loblolly pine was second, with 4.7 billion cubic feet. FIA is the only program that conducts forest assessments across the United States. Increasing demands on the resource and anthropogenic-related impacts on forests have intensified the need to conduct these ecosystem-based inventories.

11 Turner, Jeffrey A.; Oswalt, Christopher M.; Chamberlain, James L. [and others]. 2008. Kentucky’s forests, 2004. Resour. Bull. SRS–129. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station.101 p. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists Roger C. Conner, Tony G. Johnson, Sonja N. Oswalt, and Kadonna C. Randolph coauthored this publication.]

Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live- tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group, accounting for about 8.4 million acres. About 78 percent of timberland in Kentucky is owned by nonindustrial private forest landowners. Forest industry owns about 2 percent of the timberland in the Commonwealth, while Federal, State, and local government agencies manage about 11 percent or 1.03 million acres. In 2003 more than 21,500 individuals were directly employed at wood processing mills, with a total annual payroll of over 700 million dollars. Many nontimber forest products are harvested in Kentucky, which ranks second in the southern region in terms of the number of nontimber forest product enterprises.

forest ecosystem restoration and management

12 Bragg, Don C. 2008. An improved tree height measurement technique tested on mature southern pines. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 32(1): 38-43.

Virtually all techniques for tree height determination follow one of two principles: similar triangles or the tangent method. Most people apply the latter approach, which uses the tangents of the angles to the top and bottom and a true horizontal distance to the subject tree. However, few adjust this method for ground slope, tree lean, crown shape, and crown configuration, making errors commonplace. Given documented discrepancies exceeding 30 percent with current methods, a reevaluation of height measurement is in order. The sine method is an alternative that measures a real point in the crown. Hence, it is not subject to the same assumptions as the similar triangle and tangent approaches. In addition, the sine method is insensitive to distance from tree or observer position and cannot overestimate tree height. The advantages of the sine approach are shown with mature southern pines from Arkansas.

13 Bragg, Don C. 2008. The prominence of pine in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain during historical times. In: Hardy, Laurence M., ed. Freeman and Custis Red River expedition of 1806: two hundred years later. Bull. of Museum of Life Sciences, 13. Shreveport, LA: Louisiana State University: 29-54.

Jeffersonian explorers Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis passed through the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain (UWGCP) during their 1806 Red River expedition, but provided only rudimentary descriptions of upland forests. This paper cites dozens of references to better account for the dominance of pine in these forests prior to their development. While pine was a prominent species, it was rarely found in pure stands over much of the study area. Rather, it appears pine mixed with hardwoods dominated the UWGCP, with only localized areas of very high pine concentration resulting from factors such as soil conditions or disturbances. Over the last two centuries, Euroamericans have dramatically impacted most of this area, and have noticeably altered the prominence of pine.

14 Darling, O.H. “Doogie”; Bragg, Don C. 2008. The early mills, railroads, and logging camps of the Crossett Lumber Company. Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 67(2): 107-140.

From the earliest small-scale logging and milling operations to the multinational conglomerates of today, the timber industry has long shaped the social and economic history of the Southern United States. Nowhere is this more true than in Crossett, AR. Born of the axe and saw, oxen and steam engines, and nurtured by the railroad during its infancy, Crossett was transformed from a remote and virtually unknown tract of rolling pine into one of the leading forest products centers in the United States, yielding enormous quantities of dimensional lumber, paneling, paper and related products, and wood-based chemicals. The story of Crossett through its first 45 years rests almost exclusively on a single institution—the Crossett Lumber Company—and the cast of characters responsible for its founding and survival.

15 Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Waldrop, Thomas A. 2008. Short-term response of reptiles and amphibians to prescribed fire and mechanical fuel reduction in a Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(7): 2883-2893.

We compared effects of three fuel reduction techniques and a control on relative abundance and richness of reptiles and amphibians using drift fence arrays with pitfall and funnel traps. Treatments were prescribed burn (B); mechanical understory reduction (M); mechanical + burn (MB); and controls (C). Hot fires in MB killed about 25 percent of the trees, increasing canopy openness relative to controls. Leaf litter depth was reduced in B and MB after burning, but increased in M due to the addition of dead leaves during understory felling. We captured 1,308 amphibians of 13 species, and 335 reptiles of 13 species. Relative abundance of total salamanders, common salamander species, and total amphibians was not changed by fuel reduction treatments. Total frogs and toads (anurans) and Bufo americanus were most abundant in B and MB; however, proximity of breeding sites likely affected results. Total reptile abundance and Sceloporus undulatus abundance were highest in MB after burning, but differed significantly only from B. Results indicate a single application of fuel reduction methods studied will not negatively affect amphibian or reptile abundance or diversity in Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. Our study further suggests that high-intensity burning with heavy tree kill, as in MB, can be used as a management tool to increase reptile abundance— particularly lizards—with no negative impact on amphibians, at least in the short term.

16 King, N.T.; Seiler, J.R.; Fox, T.R.; Johnsen, K.H. 2008. Post-fertilization physiology and growth performance of loblolly pine clones. Tree Physiology. 28(5): 703-711.

Clones are distinct genotypes whose genetic expression results in distinct phenotypes. Clones can respond differentially to forest management practices. We studied growth and leaf physiology of eight loblolly pine clones in response to fertilization. The eight genotypes displayed diverse responses to fertilization. Some grew substantially more with fertilization but did so with varying performances of a suite of traits, including growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, crown size, and crown efficiency. Fast growing clones can use different strategies for achieving their fast growth rate, and such diversity may be important for making decisions for deploying them in the field.

17 Loeb, Susan C.; Waldrop, Thomas A. 2008. Bat activity in relation to fire and fire surrogate treatments in southern pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management. 255: 3185-3192.

Bats are important components of forested ecosystems, but little is known about the effects of forest management on their populations. We used acoustic bat detectors to determine relative bat activity in three replicates of four experimental treatment plots in the Piedmont of South Carolina: (1) control, (2) thinned, (3) burned, and (4) thinned and burned. Overall bat activity was greater in the treated stands than in the control stands in both years. Activity of the larger big brown bats and red bats was also greater in the treated stands, whereas the treatments did not affect activity of the smallest species, the eastern pipistrelle. Our results suggest that treatments that reduce clutter, particularly thinning, increase the suitability of pine stands for bats’ foraging and commuting activity in the Piedmont region. Thus, use of these practices may help to preserve the biodiversity of managed pine forests in the South.

18 Ludovici, Kim H. 2008. Compacting Coastal Plain soils changes midrotation loblolly pine allometry by reducing root biomass. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 2169-2176.

Factorial combinations of soil compaction and organic matter removal were replicated at the long-term site productivity study in the Croatan National Forest, near New Bern, NC, USA. Ten years after planting, 18 preselected loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees were destructively harvested to quantify treatment effects on total above- and belowground tree biomass and to detect any changes in the absolute and relative allocation patterns. Stem volume at year10 was not affected by compaction treatments, even though the ultisols on these sites continued to have higher bulk densities than noncompacted plots. However, even when site preparation treatments were undetectable aboveground, the treatments significantly altered absolute root growth and tree biomass allocation patterns. Soil compaction decreased taproot production and significantly increased the ratio of aboveground to belowground biomass. Decreased root production will decrease carbon and nutrient stores belowground, which may impact future site productivity.

19 Marqués, Livia; Payne, Claire. 2008. Hardwood regeneration helps wildlife. Forest Landowner. 67(2): 23-25.

This article summarizes two research projects impacting wildlife habitat. The importance of creating openings in mature forest stands to enhance fruit production is demonstrated by the work of SRS scientists Cathryn Greenberg and David Loftis and Douglas J. Levey, University of Florida. Their study showed that by leaving fruit producing trees, openings can be managed to provide a significant source of soft mast throughout the year. Acorns or hard mast are an essential food for numerous species, especially during the winter. Greenberg worked with North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission scientist Gordon S. Warburton to develop a faster and simpler method to estimate acorn crops. Using 21 years of data, they found the proportion of trees bearing acorns is a successful predictor of hard mast index (HMI). Their method produced similar index values to those using the traditional Whitehead HMI method.

20 Nelson, C. Dana; Johnsen, Kurt H. 2008. Genomic and physiological approaches to advancing forest tree improvement. Tree Physiology. 28: 1135- 1143.

Genomics, the study of an organism’s complete DNA complement, is opening new opportunities in understanding how a tree grows and how this information can be used in silviculture through physiology, genetics, and tree improvement. In this paper, Nelson and Johnsen explore opportunities afforded by genome science discoveries and technology advancements in forest trees. They apply the ideotype concept (i.e., an idealized tree) to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and discuss how this approach can aid the integration of physiologic and genomic information for improving selection methods in tree improvement and process models in physiology and silviculture research.

21 Perry, Roger W.; Thill, Ronald E.; Leslie, David M., Jr. 2008. Scaledependent effects of landscape structure and composition on diurnal roost selection by forest bats. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(4): 913-925.

Forest management affects quality and availability of roost sites for forest-dwelling bats, but information on roost selection beyond the scale of individual forest stands is limited. We evaluated effects of topography (elevation, slope, and proximity of roads and streams), forest habitats, and arrangement of forest patches on selection of summer roosts for six species of forestdwelling bats in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. We modeled roost selection at two spatial scales (a 250- and 1,000- m radius around each roost). Small-scale models were generally more powerful than large-scale models. Abundance of certain forest habitats was included more often than arrangement of forest patches or topography in differentiating roosts from random locations. Roost locations of one species were influenced by elevation, and roosts of three species were affected by slope. Two species roosted close to water, two species roosted close to roads, and one species roosted away from roads. Results suggest that in a completely forested landscape, a variety of stand types, seral stages, and management conditions varying in size and topographic location throughout the landscape would likely provide the components for roosting required to maintain a diverse community of forest bats in the Ouachita Mountains.

22 Samuelson, Lisa J.; Butnor, John; Maier, Chris [and others]. 2008. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the Southern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 721-732. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientist Kurt Johnsen coauthored this publication.]

Eleven years of intensive resource management of loblolly pine resulted in d.b.h., basal area, and volume similar to or greater than values reported for loblolly pine of the same age and planting density in Hawaii. These results indicate that loblolly pine grown in the Southern United States can produce the high yields observed on favorable, exotic locations when stands are below maximum carrying capacity. Short-rotation plantations, perhaps used to produce biofuels, would better exploit the genetic potential of loblolly pine, because stands would be harvested before reaching carrying capacity. High basal area and volume production in older loblolly pine stands in Hawaii are likely a result of low mortality and exceptionally high leaf area index. Interactions between site and climatic factors and physiological processes that control mortality require further study.

23 Waldrop, Thomas A.; Yaussy, Daniel A.; Phillips, Ross J. [and others]. 2008. Fuel reduction treatments affect stand structure of hardwood forests in western North Carolina and southern Ohio, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 255: 3117-3129.

Prescribed fire and mechanical treatments were tested at the two hardwood sites of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study (Southern and Central Appalachian regions). The primary management objective was to reduce severity of potential wildfires by reducing live and dead fuels. Secondary objectives were to increase oak regeneration by reducing competition from red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.); and to improve wildlife habitat by creating early successional habitat, increasing cover of grasses and forbs, and improving oak regeneration. Fire and mechanical treatments used at both sites were designed to restore stand structure to an open woodland condition. Results will provide managers with a better understanding of several options for reaching this restoration goal.

24 Xu, Shiqin; Tauer, C.G.; Nelson, C. Dana. 2008. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tree Genetics & Genomes. 4(4): 859-868.

Xu, Shiqin; Tauer, C.G.; Nelson, C. Dana. 2008. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tree Genetics & Genomes. 4(4): 859-868.

25 Xu, Shiqin; Tauer, C.G.; Nelson, C. Dana. Natural hybridization within seed sources of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tree Genetics & Genomes. 4(4): 849-858.

Geneticists Shiqin Xu and Chuck Tauer, Oklahoma State University, and Dana Nelson, Southern Research Station, teamed up to examine natural hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine (evaluating 96 shared amplification fragment length polymorphisms genetic markers). Hybridization frequency varied geographically, from 0 percent to 30 percent among seed sources. For both species, the hybridization level was higher in populations west of the Mississippi River than east of the river. The results clearly show that forest management plans need to consider the possibility of interspecies hybridization when planting recommendations are developed, especially in areas where the species’ native ranges overlap.

forest values

26 Barbour, R. James; Zhou, Xiaoping; Prestemon, Jeffrey P. 2008. Timber product output implications of a program of mechanical fuel treatments applied on public timberland in the Western United States. Forest Policy and Economics. 10(6): 373-385.

This study reports the results from a 5-year simulation of forest thinning intended to reduce fire hazard on publicly managed lands in the Western United States. A simulation model of interrelated timber markets was used to evaluate timber product outputs. Approximately 84 million acres, or 66 percent of total timberland in the West, is publicly managed; 78 million acres are managed by Federal agencies. We considered three budget scenarios using a least-expensive, highest hazard area first policy. Our intention is not to definitively answer questions about where or how to conduct treatments to reduce fire hazard on public lands, but to begin to develop tools that can be used to inform such a policy debate. Initial simulations provide insight into what might happen if available funds were allocated to the leastexpensive, highest hazard areas across the West. Using assumptions of (1) an annual “subsidy” (payments for treatments), (2) the treatment costs, (3) the priority ranking by forest type, (4) fire hazard level, and (5) the wildland–urban interface (WUI) status, the simulation suggests that lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), spruce (Picea spp.)–fir (Abies spp.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) are projected to be major forest types treated in the West. A combination of treatment-ranking assumptions and low total treatable WUI acres on public timberland caused the model to concentrate almost exclusively on all WUI stands and non-WUI ponderosa pine forest type at the budget of $150 million and $300 million. With further budget increases, a large proportion of treated acres are lodgepole pine and spruce–fir forest types using the thin-from-below approach.

27 Bowker, J.M.; Lim, Siew Hoon; Cordell, H. Ken [and others]. 2008. Wildland fire, risk, and recovery: results of a national survey with regional and racial perspectives. Journal of Forestry. 106(5): 268-276. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientist Cassandra Y. Johnson coauthored this publication.]

We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First we present nationwide results and trends. Then we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and believing that residents of such areas should follow government guidelines for managing fire risk. However, we find divergence of opinion on “trusting forest professionals” between African-American and Caucasian people. Across all survey questions related to fire management and public confidence, African-Americans appear to be relatively more concerned than Caucasian or Hispanic people.

28 Cho, Seong Hoon; Yen, Steven T.; Bowker, J.M.; Newman, David H. 2008. Modeling willingness to pay for land conservation easements: treatment of zero and protest bids and application and policy implications. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 40(1): 267-285.

This study compares an ordered probit model and a Tobit model with selection to take into account both true zero and protest zero bids while estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation easements in Macon County, NC. By comparing the two models, the ordered/ unordered selection issue of the protest responses is analyzed to demonstrate how the treatment of protest responses can significantly influence WTP models. Both models consistently show that income and knowledge are positive and significant factors, while distance to poorer quality streams and duration of residency are negative and significant factors on WTP.

29 Huggett, Robert J., Jr.; Abt, Karen L.; Shepperd, Wayne. 2008. Efficacy of mechanical fuel treatments for reducing wildfire hazard. Forest Policy and Economics. 10(6): 408-414.

The efficacy of mechanical fuel treatments for reducing wildfire hazard at a landscape scale is difficult to quantify. A set of treatments designed to reduce fire hazard were simulated on 0.8 million ha of timberland in Colorado. Hazard ratings based on torching and crowning indices were assessed on each stand pre- and post treatment. The even-aged treatments cost more and place more area within our hazard thresholds, while the uneven-aged treatments yield higher potential revenues. Both higher costs and higher revenues accrue to the treatments on higher risk stands. Treatments also have differing risk reductions depending on the initial risk category.

30 Lowell, Eini C.; Becker, Dennis R.; Rummer, Robert [and others]. 2008. An integrated approach to evaluating the economic costs of wildfire hazard reduction through wood utilization opportunities in the Southwestern United States. Forest Science. 54(3): 273- 283.

This research provides an important step in the conceptualization and development of an integrated wildfire fuels reduction system from silvicultural prescription, through stem selection, harvesting, in-woods processing, transport, and market selection. Decisions made at each functional step are informed by knowledge about subsequent functions. Data on the resource characteristics of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), harvest equipment productivity, lumber recovery, and net profit (loss) by level of fuels reduction achieved were collected from four 8.1-ha (20 acres) sites in northern Arizona. These data were used to develop a Windows-based financial and engineering software program, the harvest cost-revenue estimator, to identify the economic costs of wildfire fuel reduction treatments that may be used to evaluate cost per acre thresholds for logging contractors, appraise contract bid rates, or assess stumpage values for ponderosa pine stands in the Southwestern United States. Application of the model illustrates variability in fuels reduction costs owing to the level of fuels reduction achieved, the volume of merchantable wood removed from different forest stands, and the availability of markets for removed material. Machine productivity helps predict differences in harvest costs but is secondary to market constraints and the volume of wood harvested.

31 Mitchell, D.; Klepac, J. 2008. Processing woody biomass with a modified horizontal grinder. In: Baker, S.A.; Bolding, M.C.; Greene, W.D., eds. Addressing forest engineering challenges for the future: Proceedings of the 31st annual meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering. Athens, GA: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia: 167-172.

This study documents the production rate and cost of producing woody biomass chips for use in a power plant. The power plant has specific raw material handling requirements. Output from a 3-knife chipper, a tub grinder, and a horizontal grinder was considered. None of the samples from these machines met the specifications needed. A horizontal grinder was modified to replace the teeth on the drum with chipping blades in order to process whole trees into biomass chips that met the power plant’s size specification. The study was installed on the Shoal Creek Ranger District, National Forests in Alabama, near Heflin, AL. This biomass removal project was the first step in a wildlife habitat improvement treatment to convert a 37-acre stand of off-site planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris M.). The trees were 15 years old with an average dbh of 4.0 inches and average total height of 30.5 feet. The time and motion study gathered data on whole-tree processing for short fiber chips up to ½-inch long, short fiber chips from trees that had been partially delimbed to remove needles, and long fiber chips up to ¾-inch long. The average production rate ranged from 24.9–38.2 green tons/productive machine hour (gt/ pmh). A machine rate of $161.20/pmh was calculated, resulting in a cost of $4.22/gt for producing the long fiber biomass chips.

32 Mitchell, D.L.; Gallagher, T.V.; Thomas, R.E. 2008. The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. 14(4): 1-14.

A fairly recent development in the forest industry is the use of shift work in logging in the Southeastern U.S. Logging company owners are implementing shift work as an opportunity to increase production and potentially reduce the cost of producing each unit of wood, without consideration of the potential impacts on the logging crew. There are many documented physiological and psychological impacts on workers from shift work in a variety of industries, although few address forestry workers in the U.S. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information about how logging company owners were implementing shift work in seven Southeastern States. Data collected during the interviews included employee turnover, shift hours, shift scheduling, safety considerations, and production impacts. Various work schedules were employed. The majority of the schedules encompassed less than 24 hours per day. Permanent and rotating shift schedules were found. None of the logging company owners used more than two crews in a 24- hour period. Additional safety precautions were implemented as a result of working after dark. No in-woods worker accidents or injuries were reported by any of those interviewed. Results indicate that a variety of work schedules can be successfully implemented in the Southeastern U.S. logging industry.

33 Mitchell, Dana; Seixas, Fernando; Klepac, John. 2008. Felling small trees with a drive-to-tree feller-buncher. Tech. Release 08-R-16. Rockville, MD: Forest Resources Association, Inc. 2 p.

Conventional forestry equipment is often used to harvest small diameter trees. The typical ground-based logging operation is highly mechanized, with the most common using feller-bunchers, grapple skidders, and a chipper or grinder. But these machines may not be economical when used in precommercial or unmerchantable thinning operations in which the number of trees to be removed per acre is high but volume per tree is low. Published studies commonly find that feller-buncher productivity (tons/productive machine hour) is directly proportional to tree diameter. As tree diameters increase, the tons produced per hour increase, resulting in a lower cost per unit of wood produced. Existing literature often reports low fellerbuncher production rates in stands with smaller trees (3-inch d.b.h. or less). The feller-buncher productivity observed in this study was higher than expected. Gentle topography, uniform plantation, and operator experience created an environment conducive to high fellerbuncher productivity. This study focused on using conventional, readily available equipment in a unique application that was not related to short-rotation woody crops. The machine tested does not represent a special alternative or technique for felling smaller trees.

34 Poudyal, Neelam; Cho, Seong Hoon; Bowker, J.M. 2008. Demand for resident hunting in the Southeastern United States. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 13: 158-174.

We modeled hunting demand among resident hunters in the Southeastern United States. Our model revealed that future hunting demand will likely decline in this region. Population growth in the region will increase demand but structural change in the region’s demography (e.g., “browning” and “aging “), along with declining forest land access will decrease hunting demand. The results suggested that programs encouraging younger and nonwhite populations to participate in hunting could mitigate a forecast hunting decline in the region. Increasing license fees, while politically risky, should increase agency revenues due to price-inelastic demand. The model developed here can be applied to understand and project hunting demand in the Southeast and adapted to other regions.

35 Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Abt, Karen; Gebert, Krista. 2008. Suppression cost forecasts in advance of wildfire seasons. Forest Science. 54(4): 381-396.

Forecasts of wildfire suppression costs are demonstrated for two lead times in advance of a wildfire season: spring and fall of the current fiscal year. Forecast equations relate costs by geographical region to climate variables and time trends. Forecasts are evaluated for their goodness of fit using cross-validation techniques. Results show that the spring forecast of suppression costs is statistically no better than the fall forecast for predicting the coming season’s costs. However, both the spring and fall models reduce forecast errors by approximately 60 percent compared to a 10-year moving average of observed historical costs, which is currently used as a budget request formula by the U.S. Forest Service.

36 Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Abt, Karen L.; Huggett, Robert J., Jr. 2008. Market impacts of a multiyear mechanical fuel treatment program in the U.S. Forest Policy and Economics. 10: 386-399.

We describe a two-stage model of global log and chip markets that evaluates the spatial and temporal economic effects of government-subsidized fire-related mechanical fuel treatment programs in the U.S. West and South. The first stage is a goal program that allocates subsidies according to fire risk and location priorities, given a budget and a feasible, market-clearing market solution. The second stage is a quadratic welfare maximization spatial equilibrium model of individual State and global product markets, subject to the fuel treatment allocation. Results show that the program enhances timber market welfare in regions where treatments occur and globally but has an overall negative economic impact, once fuel treatment program costs are included. The overall cost of a mechanical fuel treatment program, when considering timber market welfare, transport costs, treatment costs, and timber receipts, exceeds $1,000 per acre, implying that the long-run fire effects and ecosystem net benefits of a treatment program would need to exceed this figure in order to justify widespread implementation.

37 Rummer, Bob. 2008. Assessing the cost of fuel reduction treatments: a critical review. Forest Policy and Economics. 10: 355-362.

The basic costs of the operations for implementing fuel reduction treatments are used to evaluate treatment effectiveness, select among alternatives, estimate total project costs, and build national program strategies. However, a review of the literature indicates that there is questionable basis for many of the general estimates used to date. Different approaches to estimating cost have been used. Four methods are reviewed with discussion of the appropriate applications to fuel reduction cost analysis. Critical gaps identified in the understanding of operations costs include business overhead, repair and maintenance reserves, and estimates of the cost of risk. Future analyses of fuel treatments should be cautious in extrapolating cost numbers from the existing literature.

38 Shupe, Todd F.; Groom, Leslie H.; Eberhardt, Thomas L. [and others]. 2008. Selected mechanical and physical properties of Chinese tallow tree juvenile wood. Forest Products Journal. 58(4): 90-93.

Chinese tallow tree is a noxious, invasive plant in the Southeastern United States. It is generally considered a nuisance and has no current commercial use. The objective of this research was to determine the moduli of rupture (MOR) and elasticity (MOE) of the stem wood of this species at different vertical sampling locations. Three Chinese tallow trees were felled and cut into bolts before sampling along the east and west radial directions. It was found that Chinese tallow tree has sufficient bending strength for low to medium structural uses. Tree, bolt, and sampling direction were all found to be significant sources of variation for the MOR and MOE data.

threats to forest health

39 Achtemeier, Gary L. 2008. Effects of moisture released during forest burning on fog formation and implications for visibility. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 47(5): 1287-1296.

Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the United States. Visibilities at accident sites have been estimated in the range from 1 to 3 m (extinction coefficients between 1000 and 4000). Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 29 “smokes” during 2002 and 2003. These data were converted to a measure of the mass of water vapor present to the mass of dry air containing the vapor (smoke mixing ratio). Smoke temperatures were processed through a simple radiation model before smokes were mixed with ambient air with temperature and moisture observed during the early morning on the days following the burns. Calculations show supersaturations implying liquid water contents (LWC) up to 17 times as large as LWC found in natural fog. Simple models combining fog droplet number density, droplet size, and LWC show that the supersaturation LWC of smokes is capable of reducing visibility to the ranges observed.

40 Campbell, Joshua W.; Hanula, J.L. 2007. Efficiency of Malaise traps and colored pan traps for collecting flower visiting insects from three forested ecosystems. Journal of Insect Conservation. 11(4): 399-408.

Pollinators provide critical ecosystem services, but sampling them in forests is difficult for a variety of reasons. We tested pan traps constructed from blue, yellow, and white Solo7 bowls and compared them to Malaise traps at three different forest locations (Piedmont, Coastal Plain, and Blue Ridge). Blue pan traps were the most effective overall, although some pollinator groups preferred certain pan trap colors. Pan traps generally caught more pollinators than Malaise traps and, because of their low cost and simplicity, using several colors of pan traps is an effective way to sample relative abundance and species richness of flower-visiting insects in forests.

41 Campbell, Joshua W.; Hanula, J.L.; Outcalt, Kenneth W. 2008. Effects of prescribed fire and other plant community restoration treatments on tree mortality, bark beetles, and other saproxylic Coleoptera of longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill., on the Coastal Plain of Alabama. Forest Ecology and Management. 254: 134-144.

Treatments (prescribed burns, thinning of understory, herbicides) to restore understory plant communities of mature (50-80 years old) longleaf pine and reduce risks of wildfire were applied to plots in the Coastal Plain of Alabama that had a substantial shrub layer due to lack of fire. Some saproxylic beetles (which feed on dead and dying wood) are considered pests because they can kill trees and degrade wood, but the majority are beneficial because they aid in decomposition of wood and serve as food for other invertebrate and vertebrate animals. From 2002 to 2004, we captured saproxylic beetles on various treated plots. Our results show that the restoration treatments tested did not cause increased bark beetle-related tree mortality, and they did not negatively affect populations of early successional saproxylic beetle fauna.

42 Campbell, Joshua W.; Hanula, J.L.; Waldrop, Thomas A. 2008. Effects of prescribed fire and fire surrogates on saproxylic Coleoptera in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina. Journal of Entomological Science. 43(1): 57-75.

We examined the effects of forest management practices (prescribed burning, shrub removal, and prescribed burn plus shrub removal) on beetles that eat or live in dead or dying trees in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Although a few beetles are pests, they are greatly outnumbered by lesser known beetles that are valuable parts of forest ecosystems. Saproxylic beetles are important because they contribute to wood decomposition, nutrient cycling, and they are food for other organisms, so we want to know how these unique Coleoptera respond to various forest management practices so they can be conserved. In our study, saproxylic beetle numbers increased greatly from the first year (2003) to the second year (2004) in response to all treatments. Numbers of many species, including various species of Scolytidae, were significantly affected by the treatments. We saw no evidence that the treatments negatively impacted saproxylic species, and in most cases they benefited from the disturbances.

43 Guo, Qinfeng; Symstad, Amy. 2008. A two-part measure of degree of invasion for cross-community comparisons. Conservation Biology. 22(3): 666-672.

Invasibility is a critical feature of ecological communities, especially for management decisions. However, measuring invasibility has been a major challenge, and different measures such as the richness, survival, density, or biomass of exotic species have so far been used, producing inconsistent results and making comparisons among communities difficult. We propose a measure with the proportions of both exotic species richness and exotic species abundance. By including both of these components, the new practical measure illustrates the importance of dominance of exotic species relative to natives, which is a primary management concern associated with exotic species.

44 Hanula, James L.; Mayfield, Albert E., III; Fraedrich, Stephen W.; Rabaglia, Robert J. 2008. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay (Persea borbonia) trees in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology. 101[Number unknown]: 1276-1286.

The redbay ambrosia beetle carries a fungus that is killing mature redbay trees in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. The beetle was recently introduced to the Savannah, GA, area from somewhere in Asia. In 2006 and 2007 we investigated the seasonal flight activity of redbay ambrosia beetle, what trees it attacks, and population levels of the beetle at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia, where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. These studies are important first steps in understanding the biology of this beetle and offer some promise for future control strategies.

45 Khaustov, Alexandr A.; Moser, John C. 2008. Two new species of mites of the genera Petalomium Cross and Caesarodispus Mahunka (Acari: Heterostigmata: Neopygmephoridae, Microdispidae) associated with Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the USA. International Journal of Acarology. 34(2): 115-122.

Two new species of myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites, Petalomium hofstetteri n. sp. (Neopygmephoridae) and Caesarodispus klepzigi n. sp. (Microdispidae), associated with the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are described from Louisiana, U.S.A.

46 Koch, F.H.; Smith, W.D. 2008. Spatio-temporal analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Circulionidae: Scolytinae) invasion in Eastern U.S. forests. Environmental Entomology. 37(2): 442-452.

A symbiotic fungus of the beetle has recently caused mortality of redbay and, occasionally, sassafras trees in the Southeast. No one had done a broadscale analysis of the threat to the Eastern U.S., so we mapped redbay and sassafras densities, delineated potential climatic limits for the beetle, and modeled spread through time. Our results suggest that key areas with high redbay levels have not been invaded, but some are immediately threatened; climatic conditions may constrain the beetle to the Southeastern U.S. coast; if unchecked, the beetle may spread throughout the range of redbay in less than 40 years. Disruption of humanaided, long-distance dispersal could reduce this possibility.

47 Lu, Min; Miller, Daniel R.; Sun, Jiang- Hua. 2007. Cross-attraction between an exotic and a native pine bark beetle: a novel invasion mechanism? Public Library of Science (PLoS) ONE. 12: e1302. 9 p.

We report, for the first time, facilitation between an exotic and a native bark beetle that seems to involve overlap in the use of host attractants and pheromones, resulting in cross-attraction. In China we found that 35-40 percent of Pinus tabuliformis attacked by an exotic bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens (native to the USA and Canada), were also attacked by a native pine bark beetle, Hylastes paralellus. Antennal and walking responses of H. parallelus to hostand beetle-produced compounds were similar to those of D. valens in China. The phenomenon of semiochemicalmediated interspecific facilitation should be considered as an invasion mechanism for other species of exotic bark and ambrosia beetles.

48 Miller, Daniel R.; Duerr, Donald A. 2008. Comparison of arboreal beetle catches in wet and dry collection cups with Lindgren multiple funnel traps. Journal of Economic Entomology. 101[Number unknown]: 107–113.

We compared the effectiveness of a dry collection cup to a wet collection cup for use with baited Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in catching bark and wood boring beetles in southern pine forests. In general, catches of Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, and Buprestidae in dry cups were 40 to 97 percent lower than those in wet cups. In contrast, catches of some Scolytidae (Ips avulsus and Ips grandicollis) were largely unaffected by cup selection. Our results support the use of wet cups with baited multiple-funnel traps in areas where maximum trap efficiency is required, such as in the detection of exotic insects at ports-of-entry and within quarantine and containment zones.

49 Nowak, John; Asaro, Christopher; Klepzig, Kier; Billings, Ronald. 2008. The southern pine beetle prevention initiative: working for healthier forests. Journal of Forestry. 106(5): 261-267.

The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest pest in the South. After a recent SPB outbreak, the U.S. Forest Service [Forest Health Protection and Southern Research Station (SRS)] received SPB Initiative (SPBI) funding to focus more resources on proactive SPB prevention work. This funding is being used for on-the-ground accomplishments, landowner education, and research and development. Since 2003, on-the-ground accomplishments have totaled over 500,000 acres of thinning and restoration work on State, private, and national forest land. The SRS Insects, Diseases, and Invasive Plants Research Work Unit, based in Pineville, LA, has worked, internally and externally, on projects addressing (1) the risks and costs of SPB, (2) preventing and controlling SPB outbreaks, and (3) recovery from SPB outbreaks. Much work has been accomplished through the SPBI and will hopefully have a long-lasting impact. This article describes the history, current practices, and accomplishments for the first 6 years of the SPBI.

50 Pernek, Milan; Hrasovec, Boris; Matosevic, Dinka [and others]. 2008. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir. Journal of Pest Science. 81: 35-42. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientist John C. Moser coauthored this publication.]

The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens, P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and branches from A. alba trees infested by Pityokteines ssp. were collected and incubated in rearing cages. Bark beetles emerging from the stem sections and branches were examined for photetic mites. A total of 10 mite species were documented for the first time as associates of Pityokteines spp. on A. alba. The paper discusses the frequency, spectrum, and relative abundance of the species. None of the phoretic mites found in the survey in Croatia appear to have the potential to be used for biological control of Pityokteines spp., although the feeding habits are unknown for many species recorded.

51 Shepherd, William P.; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Seybold, Steven J.; Fettig, Christopher J. 2007. Antennal responses of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to stem volatiles of its primary host, Pinus ponderosa, and nine sympatric nonhost angiosperms and conifers. Chemoecology. 17: 209-221.

The western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), an aggressive killer of ponderosa pine in Western North America, may use volatile chemical odors to differentiate between host and nonhost trees (both angiosperms and conifers) when foraging. Bark extracts from 10 tree species were separated into individual chemical components, using a gas chromatograph, and simultaneously introduced to beetle antennae attached to electrodes and a signal amplifier. Compounds that elicited measurable antennal responses, indicating a beetle’s ability to detect a particular odor, may disrupt host attraction and lead to tree protection. The beetles were able to detect over 40 volatile chemicals, underscoring the complex olfactory environment in which they must locate suitable hosts.

52 Zaccarelli, N.; Riitters, K.H.; Petrosillo, I.; Zurlini, G. 2008. Indicating disturbance content and context for preserved areas. Ecological Indicators. 8: 841-853.

An accepted goal of conservation is to build a conservation network that is resilient to environmental change. The conceptual patch-corridor-matrix model views individual conservation areas as connected components of a regional network capable of sustaining metapopulations and biodiversity, and assessment of contextual conditions in the matrix surrounding conservation areas is necessary for planning. Context is often assessed in terms of fixed-width buffers surrounding conservation areas; but in practice, different locations within the same conservation area experience different contexts. We present an alternate approach for describing the landscape context of conservation areas, and we illustrate the approach by assessing vegetation disturbance measured by Landsat NDVI changes over a 4-year period for 51 conservation areas in the Apulia region of south Italy. Insights gained from a multiscale assessment of disturbance, coupled with information about land use and habitat mosaics, are necessary to understand the distinctive features of different preserved areas and, thus, to formulate appropriate plans for a regional conservation network to maintain or enhance biodiversity in the region.

forest watershed science

53 Buehler, David A.; Giocomo, James J.; Jones, Jason [and others]. 2008. Cerulean warbler reproduction, survival, and models of population decline. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(3): 646-653. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientist Paul B. Hamel coauthored this publication.]

Thirteen collaborators combined data on cerulean warbler breeding into this first comprehensive analysis of reproduction and survival in this species of intense conservation concern. Results from Arkansas, Tennessee, Indiana, Michigan, and Ontario suggest potential continuing difficulty for cerulean warblers. Populations in agriculture-dominated landscapes are likely not maintaining themselves absent immigration, while those in forest-dominated landscapes are closer to maintaining themselves. Modeled population growth indicates that much better survival estimates are needed for the species, and that efforts to improve survival during the nonbreeding season would have the greatest positive effect on population growth.

54 Coyle, David R.; Coleman, Mark D.; Aubrey, Doug P. 2008. Above- and below-ground biomass accumulation, production, and distribution of sweetgum and loblolly pine grown with irrigation and fertilization. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38(6): 1335- 1348.

Forest plantations grown with various levels of nutrient and water availability aid our understanding of optimal resource requirements. Much of our understanding of resource demand is based on aboveground parts of the tree sampled or on measurements collected on only one occasion. This study was conducted to evaluate how nutrient and water availability influence above and belowground growth in loblolly pine and sweetgum. It was predicted that more belowground growth would be observed when resources were limited. Such a response was observed for individual sampling occasions; however, this compares developmentally different trees. When developmentally similar trees were evaluated, there was very little difference in the proportion of above and belowground growth. In fact, for loblolly pine an extremely consistent ratio of above to belowground growth was observed, and this consistency was observed among a wide variety of loblolly pine studies. These results aid our understanding growth processes and carbon cycling in forest plantations.

55 De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R. 2007. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored Coastal Plain wetlands. Wetlands. 27(4): 972-978.

Methods to restore depressional wetlands in the Southern U.S. usually involve plugging drainage ditches to raise water levels and allowing wetland plants to colonize naturally from soil seed banks. However, the typical dominant grasses may not recolonize because they are absent in the seed banks and cannot disperse easily. We experimentally transplanted rooted sprigs of two vegetative-spreading wetland grasses (maidencane, southern cutgrass) into restored depressions that were left unplanted after hydrology restoration. The simple transplanting methods were successful, as both species attained 15–85 percent cover in 2 years. Planted plots developed greater vegetative cover during early drought conditions and greater cover of wetland plant species after 4 years. Selectively planting dominant species can assist restoration by accelerating plant cover development and creating a vegetation structure similar to natural wetlands.

56Elliott, Katherine J.; Vose, James M.; Knoepp, Jennifer D. [and others]. 2008. Simulated effects of sulfur deposition on nutrient cycling in class I wilderness areas. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37: 1419-1431. [Editor’s note: Wayne T. Swank, Southern Research Station scientist emeritus, and William Jackson, U.S. Forest Service, coauthored this publication.]

As a consequence of human land use, population growth, and industrialization, wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by air pollution, climate change, and exotic diseases or pests. Air pollution in the form of acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. We predicted the effects of altered sulfate (SO4) deposition on Joyce Kilmer/Slickrock, Shining Rock, and Linville Gorge Wildernesses in western North Carolina using a nutrient cycling model. Although the areas range in soil acidity, nutrient availability, and soil solution and stream chemistry, all three areas have low soil calcium/aluminum (Ca/Al) ratios, low SO4 retention, and soils are acidic and low in weatherable minerals. Even with large reductions in SO4 and associated acid deposition, it may take decades before these systems recover from depletion of exchangeable Ca, magnesium, and potassium. These forests are significantly stressed under current conditions.

57 Ford, Chelcy R.; Hubbard, Robert M.; Kloeppel, Brian D.; Vose, James M. 2007. A comparison of sap fluxbased evapotranspiration estimates with catchment-scale water balance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 145: 176-185.

Studies evaluating comparability of sap flux-based estimates of transpiration with alternative methods for estimating transpiration at the landscape scale are rare. Determining and accounting for sources of variation are critical for making landscape inferences about transpiration. We monitored sap flux in 40 trees in a 50- year old eastern white pine plantation for 2 years. We scaled estimates of transpiration and interception to the catchment and compared these with water balance estimates of evapotranspiration. For both years, the two independent estimates were similar, differing by an average of 10 percent. Results indicate that sap fluxbased estimates of transpiration may also be useful in mixed-species stands and could provide a tool to evaluate impacts of species losses on catchment water balance.

58 Jelks, Howard L.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Burkhead, Noel M. [and others]. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries. 33(8): 372-407. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientist Melvin L. Warren, Jr. coauthored this publication.]

An expert panel of ichthyologists compiled a list of imperiled (i.e., endangered, threatened, vulnerable) freshwater fishes of North America under the auspices of the American Fisheries Society’s Endangered Species Committee. The panel included 700 imperiled fish taxa representing 133 genera and 36 families. The panel regarded about 39 percent of native fish species on the continent as imperiled, including 230 vulnerable taxa, 190 threatened taxa, 280 endangered taxa, and 61 taxa presumed extinct or extirpated from nature. Of fishes listed by the committee as imperiled in 1989, most (89 percent) are the same or worse in conservation status; only 6 percent have improved in status, and 5 percent were delisted for various reasons. Habitat degradation and nonindigenous species are the main threats to at-risk fishes, many of which are restricted to small ranges.

59 Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T. 2008. Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in Southern Appalachian forests. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 66(3): 389-408.

We studied nitrogen (N) cycling patterns in several vegetation types and elevations in the Southern Appalachian Mountains to understand the potential effects of climate change and atmospheric deposition on some of the most diverse forests in the US. N inputs from rainfall increased with elevation. In all sites tree canopies retained inorganic N and lost organic N; net canopy effects varied among forest types. High elevation sites had the greatest litterfall N, soil N, soil solution N, and stream N exports. Low stream N exports from low elevation sites suggest they are N limited. Our study suggests that high elevation watersheds are more sensitive to increased N deposition and climate change.

60 Lemly, A. Dennis. 2007. A procedure for NEPA assessment of selenium hazards associated with mining. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 125: 361-375.

This paper gives step-by-step instructions for assessing aquatic selenium hazards associated with mining. The procedure was developed to provide the U.S. Forest Service with a proactive capability for determining the risk of selenium pollution when it reviews mine permit applications in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The procedural framework is constructed in a decision-tree format in order to guide users through the various steps, provide a logical sequence for completing individual tasks, and identify key decision points. By utilizing the procedure, NEPA workers can be confident in their ability to understand the risk of aquatic selenium pollution and take appropriate action. Although the procedure was developed for the U.S. Forest Service, it should also be useful to other Federal land management agencies that conduct NEPA assessments, as well as regulatory agencies responsible for issuing coal mining permits. Mining companies will also benefit from the application of this procedure because priority selenium sources can be identified in relation to specific mine-operating parameters. The procedure will reveal the point(s) at which there is a need to modify operating conditions to meet environmental quality goals. By recognizing concerns early in the NEPA process, it may be possible for a mining company to match operational parameters with environmental requirements, thereby increasing the likelihood that the permit application will be approved.

61 Lemly, A. Dennis; Skorupa, Joseph P. 2007. Technical issues affecting the implementation of U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 3(4): 552- 558.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current waterbased regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the ‘‘what, where, and when’’ is essential with the new tissue-based approach in order to ensure proper acquisition of data that apply to the criterion. Dischargers will need to understand selenium transport, cycling, and bioaccumulation to effectively monitor for the criterion and, if necessary, develop site-specific standards. This paper discusses 11 key issues that affect the implementation of a tissue-based criterion, ranging from the selection of fish species to the importance of hydrological units in the sampling design. It also outlines a strategy that incorporates both water column and tissue-based approaches.

62 Lockhart, Brian Roy; Chambers, Jim L. 2007. Cherrybark oak stump sprout survival and development five years following plantation thinning in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA. New Forests. 33: 183-192.

Cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) stump sprouts were studied for 5 years in a 30-year old plantation thinned to 70–75 percent stocking (light thinning) and 45–50 percent stocking (heavy thinning). Sprouting success, survival, number of sprouts per stump, and sprout height differed little between thinning treatments throughout the 5-year study period. Preharvest tree d.b.h. also had no influence on sprout survival and development. A 2-year drought reduced survival and may have influenced sprout development. Sprout clump survival dropped from 90 percent one year following thinning to 46 percent 3 years after thinning. Although sprout height averaged 337 cm 5 years after thinning, annual sprout growth decreased from 166 cm the first year after thinning to 33 cm in each of the last two growing seasons. Results indicated that bottomland hardwood regeneration evaluation models may underestimate the potential of oak stump sprouts to contribute to preharvest regeneration assessments. Further study in the role of stump sprouts to regenerate bottomland oak species is needed.

63 Lockhart, Brian Roy; Gardiner, Emile S.; Stautz, Theran P. [and others]. 2007. Nondestructive estimation of leaf area for pondberry. Res. Note SRS–14. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 5 p. [Editor’s note: Southern Research Station scientists Theodor D. Leininger, Paul B. Hamel, Kristina F. Connor, Nathan M. Schiff, A. Dan Wilson, and Margaret S. Devall coauthored this publication.]

Pondberry [Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume] is a federally listed endangered shrub found as isolated populations in seasonally flooded forests across the Southeastern United States. Because this shrub is rare, it has received little research attention, and basic knowledge of its ecology and physiology is lacking. To facilitate future ecological and physiological studies on pondberry, we developed and tested a model to predict area of individual leaf blades from simple dimensions that are obtained nondestructively. A linear function, using the product of blade length and width as the independent variable, was found to be the most suitable predictor of pondberry leaf blade area based on correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.9956), plots of actual versus predicted values, and predicted versus residual values. We demonstrate that simple dimensions that are obtained nondestructively, such as blade length and width, can be used to reliably predict leaf blade area of pondberry, but model coefficients should be calibrated for local colonies to improve estimates. Development of this model allows for leaf blade area determination at the plant level without the need to destructively harvest foliage.

64 Lockhart, Brian Roy; Kellum, Jamie E. 2006. A complex stand on the White River National Refuge: implications for bottomland hardwood old growth. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 60: 181-184.

Tree species composition was sampled in an old, remnant bottomland hardwood forest in Desha County, AR. The stand has 312 trees ha-1 greater than 10 cm d.b.h. and a mean basal area of 30.4 m2ha-1, values within ranges reported for other bottomland hardwood old-growth forests. Tree species of greatest importance included sugarberry, sweet pecan, overcup oak, Nuttall oak, and green ash. Observations indicate that this stand is undergoing gap-phase regeneration dynamics. Numerous canopy gaps of various sizes, large coarse woody debris, and patches of even-aged trees indicate that this stand may fit criteria of an uneven-aged forest in the old-growth stage of stand development.

65 Meadows, James S.; Skojac, Daniel A., Jr. 2008. A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 32(2): 69-79.

We describe a new tree classification system for southern hardwoods. It replaces the old system originally developed by John Putnam in 1960. Descriptions of individual tree classes within Putnam’s system are too broad, too subjective, and are poorly defined, which leads to inconsistency among users in the field. Our new system consists of five tree classes used only for sawtimber-sized trees: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) desirable growing stock, (3) acceptable growing stock, (4) cutting stock, and (5) cull stock, and two tree classes used only for poletimbersized trees: (1) superior poletimber stock and (2) inferior poletimber stock. We use well-defined, objective criteria for the descriptions of the individual tree classes. Our new tree classification system can be used as a basis for planning thinnings and for developing marking rules in southern hardwood forests. Tree classes are used to identify those trees that should be cut and those trees that should be retained during a hardwood thinning operation. Other uses and adaptations of our new system are also described.

66 Rosen, David J.; De Steven, Diane; Lange, Michael L. 2008. Conservation strategies and vegetation characterization in the Columbia Bottomlands, an under-recognized southern floodplain forest formation. Natural Areas Journal. 28(1): 74-82.

The Columbia Bottomlands along the Texas Gulf Coast represent the westernmost extent of southern floodplain forest. The forests today represent only 25 percent of their presettlement extent, and they are threatened by urban and agricultural development. Their importance as migratory landbird habitat led to the Columbia Bottomlands Conservation Plan, a multipartner effort to establish a regional network of protected forest sites. By 2007, approximately 8,100 ha in 26 tracts had been conserved. We found the forest composition of a typical tract to be a mosaic of different tree species influenced by floodplain topography, flooding pattern, and soil type. Knowledge of forest composition will help to guide future land acquisitions and to develop approaches for management and restoration.

67 Samuelson, Lisa J.; Farris, Marianne G.; Stokes, Tom A.; Coleman, Mark D. 2008. Fertilization but not irrigation influences hydraulic traits in plantation-grown loblolly pine. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(8–9): 3331- 3339.

Evaluating water demand of managed forest tree plantations is critical for assessing production requirements for bioenergy, pulp and paper, and timber products. Information is limited on how processes controlling tree water use is influenced by soil water and nutrient availability. This study reports on measurements of water demand and other hydraulic properties of loblolly pine stands grown with variable irrigation and fertilization. Individual tree water demand was largely determined by the amount of leaf area in the tree canopy, although sap wood area also had some influence. Loblolly pine grown with high fertility maintained more leaf area and therefore had higher water demand, while irrigation had no positive impact on leaf area and thus little impact on water use. Results of this study will aid predictions of water requirements for pine plantations and products produced from them.

68 Schiff, Nathan M.; Valley, Steven A.; LaBonte, James R.; Smith, David R. 2006. Guide to the siricid woodwasps of North America. FHTET-2006-15. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. 102 p.

The Siricidae are a family of large, colorful, stingless wasps whose larvae bore into wood. While most species of siricids are of only minor importance in their native forests, exotic species can be quite damaging. Sirex noctilio, a species native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa has been very destructive to plantations of introduced North American pines in several Southern Hemisphere countries. It was so destructive to Monterey pines in Australia and New Zealand that the Australians started a research program in the 1960s to control it. A European nematode, Deladenus siricidicola, has proven extremely effective as a classical biological control agent for Sirex noctilio in both Australia and New Zealand. In 2005, Sirex noctilio was discovered in New York and Canada. A program is being developed to control it, but there are unique problems in North America, the most basic of which is identification of this pest. In contrast to the Southern Hemisphere countries, which have no native siricid species, North America has many siricids, including several that are very similar to Sirex noctilio. This guide, including keys and photographic figures, was produced as a reference to help foresters, land managers, students, and all those concerned with our native forests identify North American Siricidae, including the introduced Sirex noctilio.

69 Stroh, Chrissa L.; De Steven, Diane; Guntenspergen, Glenn R. 2008. Effect of climate fluctuations on long-term vegetation dynamics in Carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands. 28(1): 17-27.

In southeastern depressional wetlands, water levels are influenced mainly by annual rainfall and are sensitive to droughts. Models suggest that the plant communities will respond to annual hydrologic fluctuation in one of two ways: either cyclic change maintaining herbaceous vegetation, or succession to forest. In seven wetlands, we analyzed hydrologic variation and vegetation change over a 15-year period spanning two drought and reflooding cycles. Wetland drying during droughts led to increased cover of grass, upland, and woody species. Conversely, reflooding resulted in expansion of aquatic and emergent species, and reduced the cover of flood-intolerant woody and upland species. These large semi-permanent wetlands generally exhibited cyclic change, whereas succession to forest may be favored in smaller, shallower depressions. Understanding responses to short-time climate fluctuation provides a basis for predicting the long-term effects of climate change.

70 Wilson, A. Dan; Lester, Donald G.; Luckenbill, Brian K. 2008. Control of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes with fungicides, aerated steam, and supercritical fluid CO2-seed extraction. Plant Pathology Journal. 7(1): 65-74.

A group of fungi known as clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes (CA-endophytes) are carried within the seeds of numerous temperate grasses worldwide. These fungi are important because some of them confer beneficial effects (resistance) in their grass hosts to a wide range of insect and disease pests, while others produce powerful alkaloids that are toxic to mammalian herbivores. The presence of CA-endophytes in grasses complicates the evaluation of genetic traits. Thus, endophyte-free cultivars are needed to evaluate agronomic characteristics in the absence of modifying endophytes. Three different control methods were evaluated in this study to determine which treatments could provide significant endophyte control without causing appreciable seed or seedling mortality. Several potential applications of these new technologies for controlling seed-borne fungal pathogens are discussed.


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Southern Research Station headquarters in spring 2007. (Photo by Rodney Kindlund, U.S. Forest Service)
Southern Research Station headquarters in spring 2007. (Photo by Rodney Kindlund, U.S. Forest Service)