Critical Loads - Management Strategy - Summary And References

The best option for reducing resource impacts associated with excess air pollution is to reduce the pollution, whether you are dealing with acidification or excess nutrient nitrogen impacts.  Ultimately, air regulators hold the authority to require the emission reductions needed to restore ecosystems affected by air pollution.  These management actions can be applied by resource managers to help alleviate some of the negative impacts until air quality can be improved and atmospheric deposition reduced.


Adams, M.B. 1999.  Acidic deposition and sustainable forest management in the central Appalachians, USA.  Forest Ecology and Management 122: 17-28.  doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00029-8.

Boerner, R.E.J., Brinkman, J.A., and Sutherland, E.K.  2004.  Effects of fire at two frequencies on nitrogen transformations and soil chemistry in a nitrogen-enriched forest landscape.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 609-618.

Cho, Y., C.T. Driscoll, C.E. Johnson, and T.G. Siccama. 2010. Chemical changes in soil and soil solution after calcium silicate addition to a northern hardwood forest.  Biogeochemistry 100: 3-20.  doi:  10.1007/s10533-009-9397-6.

Connolly, S., T.C. Cain, J.S. Vestal, and P.J. Edwards. 2007.  The Potential Effects of Acid Deposition: What’s a National Forest to Do? In: Advancing the Fundamental Sciences: Proceedings of the Forest Service National Earth Sciences Conference, San Diego, CA: 18-22 October 2004.  PNW-GTR-689, Portland, OR, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Fenn, M.E., E.B. Allen, S.B. Weiss, W. Jovan, L.H. Geiser, G.S. Tonnesen, R.F. Johnson, L.E. Rao, B.S. Gimeno, F. Yuan, T. Meixner, and A. Bytnerowicz. 2010. Nitrogen critical loads and management alternatives for N-impacted ecosystems in California. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 2404-2423. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.07.034.

Fenn, M.E., K.F. Lambert, T. Blett, D.A. Burns, L.H. Pardo, G.M. Lovett, R. Haeuber, D.C. Evers, C.T. Driscoll, and D.S. Jeffries. 2011. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems. Issues in Ecology 14: 1-21.

Homyak, P.M., R.D. Yanai, D.A. Burns, R.D Brigss, and R.H. Germain. 2008.  Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest.  Forest Ecology and Management 255: 2589-2601.  doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.018.

Hudy, M., D.M. Downey, and D.W Bowman. 2000.  Successful restoration of an acidified native brook trout stream through mitigation with limestone sand. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 20(2): 453-466. doi: 10.1577/1548-8675(2000)020<0453:SROAAN>2.3.CO;2.

McClurg, Sarah E., J. Todd Petty, Patricia M. Mazik, and Janet L. Clayton. 2007. Stream ecosystem response to limestone treatment in acid impacted watersheds of the Allegheny Plateau. Ecological Applications 17: 1087–1104. doi: 10.1890/06-0392.

Mizel, N. L. 2005. The transport and fate of applied limestone sand and pelletized lime following timber harvest. Thesis. Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, USA.

Sharpe, W.E., M.C. Brittingham, W.M. Tzilkowski, et al. 2006. Evaluation of whole watershed and riparian wetland liming to mitigate acidity. Final Report Grant  41000155481ME352917. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection.  //

Sullivan, T.J.  2012.  Combining ecosystem services and critical load concepts for resource management and public policy.  Water 4(4): 905-913. doi: 10.3390/w4040905.