Cone Analysis of Southern Pines - A Guidebook

Author(s): Bramlett, D.L.; Belcher, E.W., Jr.; DeBarr, G.L.; Hertel, G.D.; Karrfalt, Robert P.; Lantz, C.W.; Miller, T.; Ware, K.D.; Yates, H.O., III

  • Date: 1977
  • Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-13. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 32 p.
  • Station ID: GTR-SE-013


Southern pine tree improvement programs require an ample supply of improved seeds, but productron from southern pine seed orchards has often been disappointing. If high productron is to be malntained yields must be monitored and causes of seed losses must be identified. Techniques for determining seed efficiency were first used for red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. by Lyons (1956) Bramlett (1972b. 1974) modified and further developed a procedure known as cone analysis, for evaluating production efficiency in southern pine seed orchards.

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